67.) Fried, Hans (1940-1944) Sproul Observatory, Swarthmore College / Mathematics
“Dr. Hans Fried, Sproul Observatory, Swarthmore College;. Professor Israel Everette Glover, Fayetteville State Teachers College, Fayetteville …” –Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (1942) * The April meeting in Chicago * W. L. Ayres * ”The three hundred eighty-eighth meeting of the American Mathematical Society was held at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, on Friday and Saturday, April 17-18, 1942. The attendance was one hundred eighty-three including the following one hundred sixty-one members of the Society: A. A. Albert, J. V. Atanasoff, W. L. Ayres, Reinhold Baer, R. M. Ballard, R. H. Bardell, Walter Bartky, E. F. Beckenbach, J. C. Bell, D. L. Bernstein, S. F. Bibb, E. E. Blanche, G. A. Bliss, Henry Blumberg, L. M. Blumenthal, etc.” … “The Secretary announced the election of the following seventy-six persons to membership in the Society: … Dr. Hans Fried, Sproul Observatory, Swarthmore College;. Professor Israel Everette Glover, Fayetteville State Teachers College, Fayetteville …”, etc.
Some rather interesting relationships and evidence of Fraenkel-like inbreeding going on at this genealogy page: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~prohel/names/eybeschutz/eybeschutz.html
“Anna BONDY Born: Nov 21, 1882 in Vienna + Berthold FRIED Born: abt. 1870 *another husband: Max HABERFELD Hans FRIED Born: Nov 12, 1905 in Vienna + Edrita GERM Born: Oct 7, 1909 in Vienna Married: Nov 14, 1933 in Vienna / Jacqueline FRIED / Erin (?) / Gerda FRIED Born: Aug 19, 1907 in Vienna + Leo GROSS Born: Apr 6, 1903 in Krosno, Poland. Married: Aug 18, 1938 / Marilyn GROSS + Alan RINZLER / Jonathan RINZLER + Genevieve (?) / Peter RINZLER / Liz GROSS + Stephen MORSE / Jennifer MORSE + Alberto PEREZ / Benjamin MORSE /Stefan FRIED Born: Mar 6, 1911 in Vienna + Hetty ELIAS Born: Oct 30, 1912 / Angela FRIED / Karoline (Caroline) BONDY Born: Jul 29, 1885 in Vienna + Dr. Adolph DRUCKER Born: Aug 27, 1876 in Itzkany, Austria, etc., etc., etc.”
68.) Fried, Hans / John H. E. (1938-1941, 1944) New School for Social Research / Law
John H. E. Fried Papers / Biographical Sketch:
John H. E. Fried (1905-1990), lawyer, professor and human rights activist, came to the United States in 1938 from Vienna, Austria shortly after its annexation by Hitler. Before immigrating to the United States, Fried, who received his Doctor of Law and Political Science from the University of Vienna in 1930, was a member of the Vienna Bar and also served a five-year term as panel member of the Vienna Labor Relations Court.
Upon his arrival in New York in the summer of 1938, Fried joined the Institute for Social Research of Columbia University. During the course of the next few years, he wrote three highly acclaimed books (The Guilt of the German Army, 1942; The Significance of Democracy: Constitutional Developments and Labor Relations in Austria, 1944; and The Exploitation of Foreign Labor by Germany, 1945), obtained a Ph.D. in Public Law and Government from Columbia University, held posts as Research Associate at Columbia University and the New School for Social Research, taught at City College and the Extension Department of Columbia, and became a senior official of the international secretariat of the International Labor Organization (I.L.O.), located in Montreal, Canada.
In January of 1947, the U.S. War Department requested Fried’s services for a three-month survey of certain aspects of the law of war, and to serve as Consultant to the U.S. Secretary of War, assigned to the U.S. War Crimes Tribunals in Nuremberg, Germany. In March 1947, Fried was asked to remain in Nuremberg as Special Legal Consultant to the U.S. Judges at the trials, to advise on questions relating to all aspects of the law of war and war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes against peace, as well as many other questions of international law. After the trials ended in Spring 1949, Fried, by decision of all presiding judges, was made their representative for the preparation of the official U.S. government publication of these trials. He was transferred to the Judge Advocate General’s Office, Department of the Army, The Pentagon, where he worked until the end of 1950. The proceedings of the 12 trials were published in 14 volumes, Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950-1953), with the introduction to each of the twelve cases stating: “John H. E. Fried, Special Legal Consultant to the Tribunals, reviewed and approved the selection and arrangement of the material as the designated representative of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals.”
Over the next three decades, Fried held academic positions at the City College of New York, Columbia University, Pittsburgh University, the New School for Social Research (NY), and from 1968 until his retirement as Professor of Political Science at the Lehman College, Graduate Faculty of the City University of New York. He continued to serve the international community, working for the United Nations in various capacities, as Legal Officer and Program Officer of the Technical Assistance Administration of the U.N., as Legal Advisor (on international law) to the Government of Nepal, and lastly as U.N. Non-Governmental Organization Representative of the Foundation for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court.
In addition to his book publications, Fried presented numerous lectures and papers at universities, national and international conferences. Seven papers were selected from the John H.E. Fried Papers and published in 1994 as Toward a Right to Peace. Selected Papers of John H. E. Fried. With a foreword by Roger S. Clark (Northampton, MA: Aletheia Press, c1994). Additional collections of materials pertaining to John H. E. Fried are located at the Leo Baeck Institute (NY) and the Simon Wiesenthal Center of Yeshiva University of Los Angeles. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger014.htm / http://liblogs.albany.edu/grenander/german_and_jewish_intellectual_emigre_collection/
“Asked by Hans Fried if he should acknowledge RF aid for the completion of his book The Guilt of the German Army, Joseph H. Willits replied negatively, advising him to acknowledge the New School for the project the School had financed with funds it received from an RF grant…” –Sociology at the New School for Social Research: An Intellectual and Pedagogical History By Cherry Schrecker http://www.rockarch.org/publications/resrep/schrecker.pdf
OSS Psychological Profile of Hitler “Ernst Kris, New School for Social Research. Dr. Bertram D. ….. However, while testifying as a witness in the-law court in 1923, Professor Max von Gruber …” –A Psychological Analysis of Adolph Hitler, His Life and Legend by Walter C. Langer, Office of Strategic Services, Washington, D.C. etc. http://www.iiit.net/~bipin/files/Dawkins/Psychology%20-%20Psychological%20Analysis%20Of%20Hitler.pdf /
69.) Friedlaender, Walter F. (1933-1939, 1942-1945) NYU / Classical Philology
Friedländer, Walter F[erdinand] anglicized to “Friedlaender” in the United States, “Friedrich Walter,” pseudonym / b. 1873 Glogau, Germany (modern Poland) d. 1966 New York, NY / New York University baroque scholar, 1935-42. Friedländer was the son of Sigismund Friedländer, a merchant, and Anna Joachimsthal (Friedländer). Orphaned early in life, Friedländer was raised a Lutheran, though his parents had both been Jewish.
–Guide to the Papers of Walter Friedlaender (1873-1966)
Walter Ferdinand Friedlaender was born in 1873 in Glogau, now Glogow, Poland, the son of Sigismund Friedlaender and Anna Joachimsthal. His parents died while he was young, and at thirteen he went to live with an older sister in Berlin. He attended the University of Berlin, and received his doctorate in Sanskrit in 1898; his dissertation, a translation with annotations of a portion of the Mahabarata, was published two years later. Shortly thereafter he went to London to study at the British Museum on a post-doctoral fellowship. While there, he visited the National Gallery where he developed an interest in art history.
After returning to Berlin, Freidlaender studied art history under Heinrich Wölfflin although he was unable to pursue a second doctorate in the field of art history. In 1904 his reviews of art exhibitions began to be published, sometimes under the name Friedrich Walter. In 1912 Friedlaender wrote a book on the frescoes of Federico Barocci, and in 1914 his book Nicolas Poussin was published. That same year he married Emma Cardin and became a Privatdozent at the University of Freiburg’s recently founded art history department, headed by Wilhelm Vöge. Friedlaender would stay at the university until he left Germany in 1933. His research and teaching there largely focused on the work of Nicolas Poussin as well as the artists presently often referred to as the mannerists; Friedlaender termed them anti-classicists. Among Friedlaender’s students was Erwin Panofsky. Several of his lectures from this time period were published by the Warburg Institute in 1925 and 1930.
Walter Friedlaender was dismissed from his university position in 1933, just prior to his retirement, because of his Jewish heritage. With the aid of his former student, Erwin Panofsky, he was able to procure a temporary position at the University of Pennsylvania and then a permanent position at New York University’s Insitute of Fine Arts. In 1943 Friedlaender and his wife separated. Walter Friedlaender’s lectures at the Insitute primarily focused on the same areas of the field he had spent his life studying, and he kept this position until his death in 1966. Several of his earlier German works were published in translation by his students.
Scope and Content Note / This collection principally documents the work and professional relationships of the art historian Walter Friedlaender. To a smaller extent, it also allows a glance at his personal life and the events occurring in Nazi Germany. / Walter Friedlaender’s professional life is evidenced in all series in this collection. Series I: Personal includes a biographical article on an etc. http://findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=163100
70.) Friedländer, Paul (1938-1944) U of California, L.A. / History of Art
“Paul Friedlander, Classics: Los Angeles 1882-1968 Professor Emeritus (University of California: In Memorium, 1974)
On the tenth of December, 1968, the University lost a man recognized as one of the foremost scholars in the world. Paul Friedlander had reached the highest distinction in classical and humanistic studies years before he came to us. He served a number of the leading universities of his native country, Germany, and repeatedly carried his attainments abroad. In particular, he was known as one of the greatest living authorities on Plato.
He was born in Berlin on March 21, 1882. He took his degree in Berlin in 1905. In 1906 he was in Greece and Italy as Fellow of the German Archaeological Institute, becoming in 1927 a corresponding member, and in 1953, a regular member. In 1911 he was Privatdozent and from 1914 Associate Professor in Berlin; in 1920 he was full Professor at Marburg and in 1932, at Halle.
In 1920, Dr. Friedlander married Miss Charlotte Friedlander (of a family not related to his), from France, who survives him. Their daughter, Dr. Dorothy Friedlander Millon, practices medicine in Washington, D.C.; her two children, David Paul and Stephanie, gave their grandfather much joy in the last years of his life.
In 1935, Paul Friedlander was forced by Nazi tyranny to retire; in 1938 he was detained in a concentration camp. After his release, he came to live in the United States, where he taught first at Johns Hopkins University. In 1940 he was called to our University and became Professor of Latin and Greek in 1945. The list of places at which he lectured includes Oxford, New York, Ann Arbor, and Berkeley. He was elected to membership in the Heidelberg and Bavarian Academies. Dr. Friedlander was honored by appointment as University of California–Los Angeles Faculty Research Lecturer in 1949 and by the award of the honorary LL.D. degree in 1960.
The list of Dr. Friedlander’s publications is long. An appreciative evaluation is to be found in Gnomon 41 (1969), written by Professor W. Buhler. His book on Paulus Silentiarius in its Introduction analyzing the art of description in various genres of literature has been called “the best presentation in existence of Greek historiography.” He worked on the subject of Greek and Roman metre; he developed an interest in the music associated with Pindar; he dealt with questions of linguistic and textual criticism, with Homer, Tragedy, Greek Epigrams, late Greek literature (particularly Nonnus), and with German literature. Above all, Paul Friedlander remains a commanding authority on Plato. His work on Plato brought him worldwide recognition. In German it has come out in a third edition. The English version has reached a second edition.
One thinks of Paul Friedlander as primarily a Hellenist and a Platonist, but both in his classes and in his writing he had much to say on such diverse subjects as the versification and language of Plautus, the literary art and philosophy of Lucretius, or the incomparable Hymn to Sleep by Statius, which he treated with sensitive appreciation and impressive learning and skill.
In archaeology, his training included field work. His deductions concerning the Argive Heraeum, published in Athenische Mitteilungen (1909), were strikingly substantiated by Blegen’s later discoveries at Prosymna that beehive tombs must be associated with princely palaces. Equally illustrative of Paul Friedlander’s delicacy of perception and breadth of understanding is the Documents of Dying Paganism; this criticism of tapestries of the late post-Christian fifth century combined study of the iconography and of the religious background.
Eminent as his published contributions are, we retain an even more vivid impression of Paul Friedlander as a human being, colleague, and friend. We remember his cordial and kindly relations with younger colleagues and with students. Few will forget the active attention he accorded lectures and meetings, the keen but friendly criticism he brought to all such occasions. Particularly unforgettable too were the reading groups that he organized to share his appreciation of such diverse authors as Goethe, Aristophanes, Pindar, St. Augustine. He was devoted to the ideals of a true university and joined vigorously in the debate instituted by our own University on ways and means to improve itself. His nice taste and strong logic, fine discrimination, intellectual humor, his vivid interest in people and things (witness his fascination with botany and fine art) mark him as an individual rare in any society. –H. B. Hoffleit F. M. Carey A. H. Travis E. N. Anderson J. W. Robson” http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/view?docId=hb6h4nb3q7&doc.view=frames&chunk.id=div00016&toc.depth=1&toc.id=
“…symbolism and history of the tapestry was published by Paul Friedlander … Documents of Dying Paganism (University of California Press) …” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hestia_Tapestry / “TAPESTRIES OF LATE ANTIQUITY Paul FRIEDLANDER: Documents of Dying Paganism. … Berkeley and Los Angeles; University of California Press, I945. … the footnotes which refer to the literature of the history of art are not very reliable. …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0009-840X(194604)1%3A60%3A1%3C46%3ATOLA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L
71.) Friedrichs, Kurt Otto (1937-1944) NYU / Mathematics
Kurt Otto Friedrichs (1901-1982) was a noted mathematician. He was the co-founder of the Courant Institute at New York University and recipient of the National Medal of Science. / Kurt Otto Friedrichs, a well-known mathematician in the twentieth century, was born in Kiel, Germany on September 28, 1901. His family soon moved to Düsseldorf, where he grew up. He attended several different universities in Germany studying the philosophical works of Heidegger and Husserl, but finally decided that mathematics was his real calling. During the 1920s, Friedrichs pursued this field in Göttingen, which had a renowned Mathematical Institute under the direction of Richard Courant. Courant became a close colleague and lifelong friend of Friedrichs. / In 1931, Friedrichs became a full professor of mathematics at the Technische Hochschule in Braunschweig. In early February 1933, a few days after Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany, Friedrichs met and immediately fell in love with a young Jewish student, Nellie Bruell. Their relationship became increasingly challenging and difficult because of the anti-Semitic laws of Hitler’s government. In 1937, both Friedrichs and Nellie Bruell managed to emigrate separately to New York where they finally married. Their long and very happy marriage produced five children.
Courant had left Germany in 1933 and had founded an institute for graduate studies in mathematics at New York University. Friedrichs joined him when he arrived in 1937 and remained there for forty years. He was instrumental in the development of the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, which eventually became one of the most distinguished research institutes for applied mathematics in the world. Friedrichs died in New Rochelle, New York on December 31, 1982. / Friedrichs’ greatest contribution to applied mathematics was his work on partial differential equations. He also did major research and wrote many books and papers on existence theory, numerical methods, differential operators in Hilbert space, non-linear buckling of plates, flows past wings, solitary waves, shock waves, combustion, magneto-fluid dynamical shock waves, relativistic flows, quantum field theory, perturbation of the continuous spectrum, scattering theory, symmetric hyperbolic equations. /A member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1959, Friedrichs received many honorary degrees and awards for his work. There is a student prize named after Friedrichs at NYU. In November 1977, he received the National Medal of Science from President Jimmy Carter “for bringing the powers of modern mathematics to bear on problems in physics, fluid dynamics, and elasticity.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_O._Friedrichs / http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Friedrichs.html
“THIS MEMORIAL OF Kurt Otto Friedrichs is given in two parts”: http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/kfriedrichs.pdf
72.) Fuchs, Walter (1933-1936, 1939-1943) Penn State / Chemistry
Walter Fuchs (1891-1957) * US Department of Energy * Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center * “The technology is not new: the so-called Fischer-Tropsch process, which transforms the product of gasification into liquid hydrocarbons, was developed by German chemists Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch in the 1920s, and helped fuel the Nazi war machine. (Walter Fuchs worked with Fischer before Fuchs was forced to leave Germany, eventually winding up at Penn State.)” / Chemists and Biochemists during the National Socialist Era “Goldschmidt (1946, Professor for Organic Chemistry at the TH. Munich), Hans Krpelin (1946, TH Braunschweig), Walter Fuchs. (1949, Professor for Technical …” doi.wiley.com/10.1002/1521-3773(20020415)41:8%3C1310::AID-ANIE1310%3E3.0.CO;2-7 / Teachers of physics and chemistry at the German Technical … “Assistants of organic, agricultural and food chemistry: Karl Scharrer. (1919–21) , Walter Fuchs (1919–26), Alfred Schuck (1920–22), Karl Kurschner …” http://www.math.muni.cz/~sisma/sisma.pdf / “Born in 1891, authored “The chemistry of the petrographic constituents of bituminous coal: part I. Studies on fusain.” By Walter Fuchs, AW Gauger, CC Hsiao, …” books.google.com/books?id=1WpgD2ZB4c8C&pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=%22Walter+Fuchs%22+%2B+chemistry&source=bl&ots=rIXbA44kMv&sig=9sWu0ytXvowjT2V-ZEFAQcqy-qs&hl=en / Media Science before the Great War … “Walter Fuchs died in 1957 at the age of sixty- six. In the course of his career, he made major … acids chemistry, and he developed a new and …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-1753(199806)89%3A2%3C362%3AMSBTGW%3E2.0.CO%3B2-OTechnical Papers “Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, v.32, December 1940. Investigations Concerning Hydroxycarboxylic Acids from Bituminous Coal, by Walter Fuchs and …” http://www.libraries.psu.edu/psul/emsl/aboutus/emspubs/technicalpapers. / The Chemistry of the Petrographic Constituents of Bitminous Coal, Part 1. Studies on Fusain, by Walter Fuchs, aw Gauger, cc Hsiao and cc …” www.libraries.psu.edu/psul/emsl/aboutus/emspubs/bulletins.html / Industrial & Engineering Chemistry: Volume 34, Issue 5 (ACS … “ACS Nano, ACS Symposium Series, Advances in Chemistry, Anal. Chem. …. Walter Fuchs, A. G. Sandhoff. pp 567–571. Publication Date: May 1942…” pubs.acs.org/toc/iechad/34/5 / Fachgruppe Chemie “History / Structure of Chemistry at the RWTH-Aachen / Fachschaft … (a follower of Stahlschmidt) and subsequently Walter Fuchs were all active as chairs. …” http://www.chemie.rwth-aachen.de/fachgruppe_e.htm “Organic Chemistry. The Extraction of Mineral Oils with Methyl. Alcohol. HAM. STAGER (Helv. …… WALTER FUCHS (Rer.,. 1923,. 56, [B],. 2095–2097).-The …” http://www.rsc.org/ejarchive/CA/1923/CA9232401169.pdf / Effects of Slurry Composition on the Reaction Rate of the … “predominantly paraffinic, and affects both synthesis chemistry …… given to Walter Fuchs of FETC for his assistance in modifying the slurry bubble column …” http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/97/97cl/marano.pdf / Penn State Live – Researchers looking hard at cleaner technologies … “14 Oct 2008 … High schoolers compete in Chemistry Day at Penn State Erie …. (Walter Fuchs worked with Fischer before Fuchs was forced to leave Germany, …”
73.) Gaede, William Richard (1933-1944) Brooklyn College / Education
Goethe by William Richard Gaede. (The Cordon Co., 1937). / John Whyte; his life and thought, as shown in a selection of his unpublished writings. by John Whyte, William Richard Gaede / Stimmen der Zeit by William Richard Gaede. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963) …” / “Special treatment of talented students in Western Europe, William Richard Gaede Publisher: Brooklyn College Book release: 1959″
74.) Gatz, Felix Maria (1933-1935) Scranton College / Musicology
Felix Maria Gatz, (1892- 1942) Money, language, and thought: literary and philosophic economies … “318; and Felix Maria Gatz, Die Begriffe der Geltung bei Lotze (Stuttgart, 1928). For the concept Geltung in Germany during the period before the publication …” books.google.com/books?id=Dz6VtuSCIJsC&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=Felix+Maria+Gatz&source=bl&ots=0WDMiI3yUe&sig=-dmuGAjZoVgLJsm7E9Dl39l2xW0&hl=en
75.) Geiger, Bernhard (1938-1945) Institute for Iranian Art (NYC) / Oriental Philology
“Professor Bernhard Geiger, of the American Institute for Iranian Art … HIarvard Oriental Series vols. 5, 6. C. The lists of indeclinables …” http://www.jstor.org/stable/522055 / “PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS, A Synopsis, by Bernhard Geiger, Tibor … codices in the collection of MSS of the Oriental Institute of the Academy …” http://www.springerlink.com/index/F37824G23455541T.pdf / “19 May 2009 … philosophy at the Oriental Institute after its Jewish director, Bernhard Geiger, was forced out; Frauwallner became director in 1942. …” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Frauwallner / “$3.95 · BERNHARD GEIGER, EDUCATOR, IS DEAD; Ex-Columbia Professor Was Mideast Language Expert” spiderbites.nytimes.com/pay_1964/articles_1964_07_00004.html
76.) Geiger, Moritz (1933-1940, 1943) Vassar College / Philosophy
Moritz Geiger (Frankfurt, 1880 – Maine, 1937) was a German philosopher and a disciple of Edmund Husserl. Beside phenomenology, he dedicated himself to psychology, epistemology and aesthetics. / Moritz Geiger studied law at Munich in 1898, then history of literature in 1899, and finally philosophy and psychology in 1900, with Theodor Lipps. During the years 1901-1902, he studied experimental psychology with Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig. Returning to Munich in 1904, he became part of the circle of students around Lipps, which included Pfänder, Reinach, Conrad, Fischer, Hildebrand, etc. In 1906, Geiger assisted to Husserl’s lessons in Göttingen, and became part of the Munich Circle of phenomenology, along with Reinach, Conrad, Fischer and Pfänder. He passed his thesis in 1907. Along with this Husserlian circle (including Max Scheler), he published the review Jahrbuch für Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung. / In 1915, he became a teacher at Munich and, after World War I, at Göttingen (1923). With the advent of Nazism, he exiled himself in 1933 to the United States, teaching at Vassar College in New York and at Stanford University. / Several of his students became famous, such as Klaus Berger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Walter Benjamin and Karl Löwith. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moritz_Geiger
77.) Geiringer, Hilda (1933-1935, 1939-1944) Wheaton College / Mathematics
Hilda Geiringer (1893–1973), also known as Hilda von Mises, was an Austrian mathematics professor. / She was born in 1893 in Vienna, Austria into a Jewish family. Her father, Dallas Tanner, was born in Hungary and her mother, Martha Wertheimer was from Vienna. / assistant to Richard Edler von Mises / Her mathematical contributions were noticed by Albert Einstein and they corresponded over many years / In 1934, Geiringer followed von Mises to Istanbul / Geiringer undertook, as part of the war effort, classified work for the United States National Research Council. / she never disassociated herself from her Jewish upbringing / In a March 7, 1941 letter, Oswald Veblen, writing in her behalf…Three days later, Hermann Weyl wrote (also on her behalf…) / completing and editing many of von Mises’ unfinished works. To do this, however, she had to secure a grant from the Office of Naval Research…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_Geiringer / http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/mises.htm / http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Geiringer.html / http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/geiringer-hilda