The Trouble With My Head

Hoffman – Jollos

111.) Hoffman, Oscar (1938-1944) Fenn College (Cleveland, OH) / Engineering

Horizon Information PortalIntroduction to the theory of plasticity for engineers [by] Oscar Hoffman [and] George Sachs. by Hoffman, Oscar. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1953. …”!628520~!3100001~!3100028&aspect=subtab13&menu=search&ri=1&source=~!mercy&term=Introduction+to+the+theory+of+plasticity+for+engineers&index= The Journal of Physical Chemistry B: Volume 53, Issue 1 (ACS “James W. McBain, Oscar A. Hoffman. pp 39–55 …. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research … I&EC Chemical & Engineering Data Series …” Journal of Composite Materials “Oscar Hoffman. The Brittle Strength of Orthotropic Materials … OSCAR HOFFMAN. Lockheed Palo Alto Research. Laboratory,. Palo. Alto,. California …” THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN INDUSTRY PROGRAM OF THE COLLEGE OF “conducted in the University’s Mechanical Engineering Materials and Processes Laboratory for the ….. Hoffman, Oscar and Sachs, George Theory of Plasticity …”


112.) Holborn, Hajo (1934-1943) Yale / History

Hajo Holborn (b. Berlin, 1902, d. Bonn, 1969) was a German-American historian and specialist in modern German history. / Holborn was born the son of Ludwig Holborn, the German physicist and “Direktor der Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt“. In 19– he became a student of Friedrich Meinecke at Berlin University, where he achieved a doctor of philosophy in 1924. After establishing at Heidelberg in 1926, he became Privatdozent there until he was called back to Berlin as Carnegie Professor of History and International Relationships at the private Deutsche Hochschule für Politik; there he worked until his dismissal in 1933.

To avoid the Nazi terror, that same year he fled to the United Kingdom, then emigrated to the United States in 1934. Shortly after coming to America, he was appointed guest professor of German history at Yale. He taught Diplomatic History at Tufts University, Mass., (1936–1942) and was a guest professor at the University of Vienna, Austria (1955). He became a U.S. citizen and during the Second World War he worked for the Office of Strategic Services as special assistant to the chief of its Research and Analysis Branch, William L. Langer. At the conclusion of the war he served as Randolph W. Townsend professor at Yale until 1959, when he was awarded the title of Sterling Professor of History at Yale University; here he continued to teach and write until his death in 1969.

In 1967 Holborn became the first president of the American Historical Association not born in the United States. Several specialists of German and European History in America, including Peter Gay, were students of Holborn. / Like their father, Hajo Holborn’s children pursued successful careers in academic scholarship. His son Fred Holborn was a senior adjunct professor of American Foreign Policy at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University before his death in 2005. Holborn’s daughter, Hanna Holborn Gray (born 1930), is a historian of political thought in the Renaissance and Reformation. She is the Harry Pratt Judson Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago and was the University’s President for 15 years.

Prior to his emigration, Holborn was commissioned by the government to compose a history of the constitution of the Weimar Republic, resulting in the work “The Weimar Republic and the Birth of the German Democratic Party: The Hajo Holborn Papers, 1849-1956.” Other works by Holborn include the History of Modern Germany series, spanning three volumes and covering a four-century period culminating in the capitulation of Hitler’s regime in 1945. / Holborn’s work has been praised by several of his distinguished peers (e.g. Fritz Stern).

Hajo Holborn, M.A. Hon. Yale, 1940. Taught history at Yale 1934-1969. Sterling Professor of History 1959-1969. Fellow, Jonathan Edwards College, 1937-1969; Paskus Fellow, Jonathan Edwards College, 1938-1941.

Hajo Holborn (1902–1969) was the son of Ludwig Holborn, the noted physicist and one of the directors of the Imperial Institute for Physics and Technology; he grew up in the academic world of Berlin. Holborn had to emigrate because his wife, his closest collaborator and translator of many of his works, was the daughter of a Jewish professor of medicine. Moreover, Holborn was also a committed democrat and supporter of the Weimar Republic.

Holborn felt obliged to become active in public life. He wrote to his older friend Dietrich Gerhard on October 14, 1924 that although he would never abandon history as a profession, he was still lured by the thought of “direct participation in public life,” a “yearning,” he wrote, “that at times robbed [me] of all inner calm.” He thought, however, that Gerhard was probably right in thinking that his interests in scholarship and politics could in principle be reconciled, perhaps even melded together. / Holborn’s historical work initially focused on traditional diplomatic history—his doctoral dissertation was a study of German-Turkish relations from 1878 to 1890—and the era of the Reformation. In collaboration with his wife, Holborn published a selection of the writings of Erasmus of Rotterdam, and his Heidelberg Habilitationsschrift was a biography of Ulrich von Hutten. Working in the tradition of the history of ideas developed by Meinecke, Holborn linked the shaping of Hutten’s character to humanism, nascent national consciousness, and Protestantism, but he also made clear the importance of Hutten’s social position as a knight. / In 1929, the Imperial Historical Commission [Historische Reichskommission], which Meinecke chaired, commissioned Holborn to write a history of the origin of the Weimar constitution. His search for source material and contemporary witnesses brought him into direct contact with leading German politicians of the day. This project marked Holborn as a confirmed supporter of Weimar democracy, which greatly diminished the chance that any German university would offer him a professorship.

Nevertheless, in 1931 he was appointed to the professorship in history and international relations funded at the Deutsche Hochschule für Politik in Berlin by the Carnegie Foundation. The appointment was only temporary, however, and he combined it with a teaching position as a Privatdozent at the University of Berlin. His research on the Weimar constitution, the extensive source materials for which can be found among his papers at the Yale University Library, resulted in several essays, but not in the envisioned book. / Holborn clearly thought at first that his emigration would be temporary. He wrote to Dietrich Gerhard on September 11, 1933 that they were not leaving “in a bitter frame of mind”: “We feel ourselves no less tied to all that you treasure. But we do not want to be in a position where we would have to offend against what we see as our responsibility and obligation to our background and our intellectual position . . . for the time being, that means only remaining true to one’s profession and one’s self and making the best of one’s fate. Thus I am trying to conceive of our departure now as a sort of study trip that will one day end [with us] at home again.”

Thanks to family connections, and with the help of the Rockefeller Foundation and the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, Holborn found a permanent position in his field much more quickly than the Meinecke students who were to arrive in the United States later. He taught at Yale University with only a few interruptions from 1934 until his death in 1969, rising from assistant professor to holder of a prestigious endowed chair. Without abandoning his deep grounding in the cultural and intellectual world of Europe, he very consciously became an American. In a long letter to Meinecke dated February 7, 1935, he reported on the difficulties in getting settled, but he also stressed the readiness of the German émigrés to help one another and the generally friendly reception he had experienced in his host country. He commented perceptively on the fundamental differences in the effects of the international economic crisis on Europe and the United States: “It is amazing to see what has become of the self-confident and optimistic Americans over the past five years. Young people above all have been shaken in their beliefs and traditions. It is interesting to see how the crisis has made people here more socially aware and more liberal. They have become more open and less prejudiced than they had previously been. European matters have always been studied, but what had earlier been more a matter of curiosity is now an instrument of serious comparison. Under these circumstances, the activities of the Germans here might perhaps be truly fruitful.”

Like the other Meinecke students who emigrated to the United States, Holborn was a supporter of President Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. In his view, two “tremendous transformations of almost revolutionary scale” that had fundamentally changed contemporary America had been brought about. The first was the “permanent establishment of a new middle-class democracy in place of the former predominance of the rich and the most affluent groups.” “This far-reaching social transformation,” he argued in 1955, “meant the end of classical laissez-faire capitalism in the economic sphere and the realization of a social-liberal system that many people would call in plain terms welfare-state liberalism. The second and even greater revolution was America’s abandonment of the policy of isolation and its new position in international politics.” Holborn saw his great task as a political educator in the United States to be to support this second revolution, to help accustom the Americans to great power politics, and to improve their understanding of Europe and Germany in particular.

During the war, Holborn served as the special assistant to William Langer, the famous historian of international relations, at the time Director of Research and Analysis in the Office of Strategic Studies, the forerunner of the CIA. He was the contact to the War Department’s civilian affairs division and was involved in planning for postwar military government, on which he published a book in 1947. After the war, too, Holborn played a direct role in politics. He served as an advisor to the State Department on German issues, and in 1960 he became director of the American Council on Germany. In the latter capacity, he served both as an interpreter of Germany in the United States and as an advocate of American policy in the Federal Republic.

Holborn’s most important achievement in the long run was the development of German and Central European history as a recognized subdiscipline at American universities. He could count some of the most important postwar American historians of Germany among his students: Leonard Krieger, Otto Pflanze, Theodore S. Hamerow, Arno J. Mayer, Richard N. Hunt, Herman Lebovics, and Charles McClelland, to name only a few. When Meinecke asked him in March 1946 whether he thought it possible that émigrés who had become American citizens would accept academic appointments in Germany, he indicated that he himself would not out of consideration for his children and his students. In a letter to Meinecke of September 23, 1946, he wrote: In general I would love nothing better than to help German historians to rebuild historical studies in Germany and you may call on me any time you think I could be of help. . . . However, I would not consider accepting an appointment at a German university. Our children are American children. They have spent all their formative years in this country, and if we go back to Germany they would be exiles. Knowing what that means, we certainly would not want them to go through that experience unnecessarily. Moreover, we have not become American citizens in name only. We are deeply devoted to the country of our adoption. We have been happy here after getting through the first years of difficult adjustment. I have been particularly lucky in attracting a large number of unusually good students. Some of them are already teaching in various places; others, delayed by the War, will soon start their academic careers. I do not feel that I could leave them. I believe it to be my function in life to finish the task of helping to educate and train a new generation of college teachers of European history in this country and I feel that by doing this I shall contribute at least indirectly to maintaining or rebuilding German historical research. He was prepared, however, to visit Germany on a regular basis and to teach and publish in Germany.

As for the country of his birth, Holborn thought he could make a contribution to political education by supporting democracy and the integration of Germany within the reconstruction of Europe. It would take us too far astray to discuss Holborn’s writings on German history in detail here, especially his three-volume history of Germany since the Reformation. He sought a critical evaluation of German history. He rejected the argument that the failures of the past were rooted in national character, as well as the notion that there was a clear line of development leading from Luther via Frederick the Great and Bismarck to Hitler. Holborn was especially concerned to defend Luther against his critics. In Holborn’s view, Germany first set off on the path to disaster in the early nineteenth century. He outlines his thoughts on this topic in what is

probably his most important essay, “German Idealism in the Light of Social History” [“Der deutsche Idealismus in sozialgeschichtlicher Betrachtung“], which, tellingly, was published in the festschrift for Meinecke in 1952. German idealism, he argued, was the creation of a small educated elite. It did not have a fundamental understanding of the importance of religion and the churches in integrating society, and it thereby contributed to the deepening of social division and the detaching of Germany from the Enlightenment and the European natural law tradition. By stressing the importance of the power of the state and also with its promotion of a culture of inwardness, idealism distracted from the problem of overcoming the authoritarian state. In this essay, Holborn implicitly took issue with Meinecke, who had not considered the connection between ideas and social development in his work on intellectual history. In a debate with Meinecke in 1950, Holborn, invoking Ranke, stressed the moral responsibility of all individuals and all peoples for their decisions. The responsibility of power was a central theme of Holborn’s historical writing and, quite appropriately, the title of the festschrift published in his honor.

Holborn remained firmly convinced of the importance of the history of ideas and made it the subject of his presidential address to the American Historical Association; he was, incidentally, the first historian not born in the United States elected to that office. This address demonstrated his deep grounding in ancient Greek thought and European, especially German, culture. It also testifies to his long engagement with the history of ideas. In Holborn’s view, the history of ideas was the field that best conveyed the unity of the past and its significance for the present. He warned against the danger of a fragmentation of history through increasing specialization within the historical profession, and held firm to his belief that the task of history was to study human nature within its social context. He underscored the central importance of historical thinking in Greek culture and in Western civilization. Holborn thus remained true to Meinecke even though he was interested in trying to anchor ideas in their social context much more firmly than his teacher had done. / Holborn played a central role as an intermediary and bridge-builder in German-American relations. It is highly symbolic that only hours before his death in the early morning of July 20, 1969, he was presented with the first Inter Nationes Prize for Understanding Between Peoples in a deeply moving ceremony in Bonn.


113.) Honig, Richard Martin (1933-1934, 1938-1944) U. of the South (Sowanee, Tn.) / History & Philosophy of Law

Richard Martin Honig (1890 in Gnesen, Posen -1981 in Göttingen) war seit 1920 Prof. in Göttingen und emigrierte 1933 nach Istanbul. Dort verfasste er türkische Einführungen in die Rechtswissenschaft und in die Rechtsphilosophie (beide 1934 f.). 1939 ging er nach Amerika. Nach seiner Emeritierung in den USA 1963 kam er regelmäßig zu Lehr- und Forschungsaufenthalten nach Deutschland. / 

An Alphabetized list of Non-Zarathushtrians authors – H Festschrift für Richard M. Honig, zum 80. Geburtstag, 3. Januar 1970. Factory law · Land-use controls in the United States. dragonbone chair * “Beiträge zur Entwicklung des Kirchenrechts by Richard Martin Honig. (Schwartz, 1954). Straflose vor- und nachtat. by Richard Martin Honig …”


114.) Hula, Erich (1933-1935, 1938-1944) New School for Social Research / Law

 Erich Hula (1900-1987)

University at Albany

According to Arnold Brecht, a contemporary of Hula at the New School for Social Research, Erich Hula was “one of the most influential colleagues in the administrative and scholarly development of the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research, which he joined in 1938 after his arrival as a fugitive from Nazi-occupied Austria.” With the exception of a semester at Cornell University (Spring 1953) and a year at the Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research of The Johns Hopkins University (1957/1958), Hula spent his entire teaching career, from 1938 until 1967, at the New School, where he also served continuously from 1942 until retirement on the editorial board of Social Research as well as a two-year term as Dean of the Graduate Faculty from 1948-1950.

Erich Hula was born in Vienna, Austria on May 27, 1900, where he also received his formal education in jurisprudence and political science. Hula studied under Hans Kelsen and was awarded a Doctor of Law degree from the University of Vienna in 1924. Hula was able to continue his studies from 1927 to 1930 in England, France and the United States under a Rockefeller grant. After completion of his studies, Hula was once again taken under the wing of Hans Kelsen and became his assistant (1931-1933) at the Institute of International Law in Cologne, Germany. Hula’s admiration for Kelsen and his work can be seen in the large volume of Kelsen materials collected in the Hula Papers, which include correspondence, notes and published materials.

In July of 1933, Hula married Annemarie Sporken, and for he next several years held posts with the Chambers of Labor in both Graz and Vienna, Austria. Shortly after the National Socialist takeover of Austria in 1938, Hula received an offer to join the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research, and on March 12, Hula left Austria with his wife and immigrated to the United States via Czechoslovakia, Switzerland and Great Britain.

Although Hula produced only one full-length book during his career (a collection of his essays), he wrote numerous essays on a variety of subjects: international law and international institutions, in particular the League of Nations and its successor the United Nations, national self-determination, punitive war and war crimes, as well as essays on the problems of individual countries, including Austria, Germany, Great Britain and many on the Soviet Union. Erich Hula died in the Bronx, New York, on May 18, 1987.

HULA, ERICH (1900–1987), political scientist
Papers, 1900–1977, 22 ft. (GER–044)
A substantial portion of the Erich Hula Papers consists of his writings, both in typescript and published form. This includes his contributions to newspapers and journals, dating from the 1920s to 1984, and also contains extensive notes from his research as well as for courses taught primarily at the New School for Social Research. The collection also contains correspondence files and biographical documents, and a large collection of reprints (and some typescripts) sent to and collected by Hula of colleagues and other scholars, including Hans Kelsen, Hans Morgenthau, Leo Gross, Arnold Brecht and Kurt von Fritz.

1900 May 27, born in Vienna, Austria.
1921-1924 Held a position at the Wiener Bankverein.
1924 Awarded Doctor of Law degree from University of Vienna, Austria.
1927-1930 Studied in England, France, and the United States under a Rockefeller Grant.
1931-1933 Assistant (to Hans Kelsen) at the Institute of International Law, Cologne, Germany.
1933 July 31, marriage to Annemarie Sporken.
1934-1937 Secretary, Chamber of Labor, Graz, Austria.
1937-1938 Secretary, Chamber of Labor, Vienna, Austria.
1937-1938 Member, Austrian Commission for the Codification of Labor Law.
1938 March 12, left Austria; emigrated to the United States via Czechoslovakia, Switzerland and Great Britain.
1938-1944 Associate Professor of Political Science, Graduate Faculty, New School for Social Research.
1941 Co-signer of founding resolution of Austrian Committee.
1942 Member of the advisory board of the Austrian National Committee and co-signer of proclamation of Military Committee for the Liberation of Austria.
1942 Became member of editorial board of the quarterly Social Research.
1944-1967 Professor of Political Science, Graduate Faculty, New School for Social Research.
1945 Became U.S. citizen, along with his wife.
1945-1948 Visiting Professor, Graduate School, Fordham University
1948-1950 Dean of the Graduate Faculty, New School for Social Research.
1953 Spring semester. Visiting Professor, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
1957-1958 Research Associate, The Johns Hopkins University, Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research, Washington, D.C.
1960 December 10, received the Große Goldene Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich.
1967 Retirement from the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research.
1976 Renewal of Hula’s doctoral degree by the University of Vienna.
1987 May 18, died in Bronx, New York.


115.) Iltis, Hugo (1938-1944) Mary Washington College, Virginia / Biology

 Hugo Iltis (1882 in Brünn1952 in Fredericksburg, Virginia) war ein jüdisch-deutscher Botaniker und Naturhistoriker. * Hugo Iltis (1882–1952) was a professor of biology, botany, and genetics in Brünn, Czechoslovakia, and became a professor of biology at the University of Virginia after his arrival in the U.S. in 1939. He authored Gregor Johann Mendel: Leben, Werk und Wirkung (Berlin, J. Springer, 1924; Life of Mendel, transl. E. and C. Paul, New York, W. W. Norton & Co. * Iltis relocated to the United States around early 1939 Iltis, a biology professor, arrived in the United States between late 1938 and early 1939. He considered himself Gregor Mendel’s official biographer, recreated his Brünn museum that explained Mendel’s life and ideas, and quickly found a job at Mary Washington College of the University of Virginia. / May 1938. From then until the mid-1950s, Dunn helped Iltis and his family to adjust to living in Virginia, etc.

“The best biography of Mendel is Hugo Iltis, Life of Mendel (1924; trans. 1932). Mendel’s papers on hybridization are published in English in J. H. Bennett, …”–papers.html Disappearance of a Mendel Manuscript : Abstract : Nature “This manuscript had been in the custody of the Natural History Society in Brno since 1910, when it was found by Prof. Hugo Iltis in a waste-paper basket in …” “Iltis’s father Hugo was also a botanist and geneticist, and the first great biographer of Gregor Mendel. Hugo Iltis and his family once lived a comfortable life in Brno, on the same street as Czech composer Antonin Dvorak, but they were forced to flee from their homeland because Hugo Iltis was an intellectual and a vocal opponent of Nazi eugenic ideas.” “117)—and nowhere is it made clear that Hugo Iltis was Czech. But more significant is the failure to identify key ideological polarities. …” “The book is the most complete biography since Hugo Iltis’ Life of Mendel (Iltis 1966), and must be considered required reading for anyone seriously …” * “Hugo Iltis was another refugee to whom Dunn gave special attention over … to purchase Iltis’s Mendel memorabilia. Hugo Iltis had published a biography of …”

“Finally, Hugo Iltis, Mendel’s biographer, admits to having read Mendel’s paper in 1899 when a high school student. “Amazed and puzzled” by the mixture of botany and mathematics, he brought the paper to an unnamed professor of natural history, who also proved uncomprehending.”–papers.html?page=4 “Central Europe Confronts German Racial Hygiene: Friedrich Hertz, Hugo Iltis and Ignaz … Iltis was also nominally Catholic with a father of Jewish descent. …” * “His endeavors were paralleled by the Czechoslovak antiracist campaigner and socialist Hugo Iltis, the noted biographer of Gregor Mendel.44 …” * Hugo Iltis; A W Jakubski; Hans Kalmus; Franz W Kirscheimer; Esther E Klee ( Rawidowicz); W W Lepeschkin Shelfmark: MS. S.P.S.L. 200/1-6. Extent: 550 leaves …” Hugh Iltis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “His father, Hugo Iltis, was a teacher at the Brno Gymnasium, a botanist and geneticist, and a vocal opponent of Nazi eugenics. …” [Hugh Hellmut Iltis (b. 1925 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and is best known for his discoveries in the genetics of corn (maize). …etc.]

Jews in the Czech Republic: a select bibliography of works in the “Gold, Hugo. Gedenkbuch der untergegangenen Judengemeinden Mährens (Tel Aviv: …. Rudolf Iltis] (Praha: Kirchenzentralverlag, [1965?]) [YA.1992.b.6789] …” ‘Deadly Medicine. Creating the Master Race’. Exhibition at the “11 Mar 2008 … When the Czech opponent of Nazi eugenics, Hugo Iltis, emigrated to Virginia, he was shocked to find racial discrimination rife there. …” CURRENT LITERATURE 457 Flora photographica A very significant and “has just been initiated in a volume’ of which Dr. HUGO ILTIS of Brunn is the editor. This book has for its main object the publishing of actual photographic …” Arthur koestler: Definition with Arthur koestler Pictures and Photos “”There is correspondence with Hugo Iltis and between Hugh Iltis and arthur koestler. There is also an interesting biographical sketch of Kammerer by Iltis. …” * Hugo. Iltis of. Briinn, a specialist in. Botany,. Biology, and. Heredity, published a useful and interesting book on the life and work of. Gregor Johann …”


116.) Jacchia, Luigi Giuseppe (1938-1944) Harvard Observatory / Astronomy

Luigi Giuseppe Jacchia (1911-1996) “…during WWII he applied his linguistic skills to war work as scientific consultant to the Office of War Information’s Foreign Language Broadcasting and Monitoring Service.”

Obituary: Luigi G. Jacchia, 1911-1996 “L. Stavis, Wellesley College LUIGI G. JACCHIA, 1911-1996 Luigi Jacchia, a former Smithsonian Astrophysical Obser- vatory (SAO) physicist and a distinguished …”…28.1452C * “I was a XXX boy and I remember one day I was supposed to go down and meet the ship from England and welcome Luigi Jacchia and his mother. …” An analysis of the atmospheric trajectories of 413 precisely reduced photographic meteors LG Jacchia, F Verniani, RE Briggs – Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics, 1967 – Title: An Analysis of the Atmospheric Trajectories of 413 Precisely Reduced Photographic Meteors. Authors: Jacchia, Luigi; Verniani, Franco; Briggs, Robert … Luigi Giuseppe Jacchia, 4 June 1910-8 May 1996. L Rosino – G. Astron., 1997 – Title: Luigi Giuseppe Jacchia, 4 June 1910 – 8 May 1996. Authors: Rosino, L. Publication: G. Astron., Vol. 23, N. 1, p. 54. Publication Date: 03/1997. … * “Precision orbits of 413 photographic meteors by Luigi Giuseppe Jacchia. ( Smithsonian Institution, 1961).” * “Static diffusion models of the upper atmosphere with empirical temperature profiles. — 1965, Jacchia, Luigi Giuseppe. QB461.S6 V.8, NO.9 …” * Jacchia 1976 DB. Discovered 1976 Feb. 23 at the Harvard College Observatory at Harvard. Named in honor of Luigi Giuseppe Jacchia.


117.) Jäckh, Ernest / Ernst (1933-1935, 1939-1941, 1944) Columbia / International Relations


Ernst Jackh, journalist and academic, was born in Urach, Germany. He promoted the German-Turkish Alliance (1908-1914), founded the German Turkish Association (1912), and became professor of Turkish history at the University of Berlin (1914). Jackh was a member of the diplomatic service during the World War I, and, with Freidrich Naumann, an organizer of the liberal movement in Germany (1902-1912). He helped found the German League of Nations and the Hochschule fur Politik. Jackh emigrated to Britain in the 1930s and held the position of international director of the New Commonwealth Institute until 1940 when he became a professor at Columbia University.

The papers consist of correspondence and other material relating to political and diplomatic affairs in Turkey and the Middle East, particularly in relation to interests of the German Foreign Office in that area. Included are the diaries of the naval attache Hans Humann, and his secret cables and reports from Constantinople to the chiefs of the German admiralty and of the naval administration (1914-1916), as well as his correspondence (1911-1916) with Ernst Jackh. Humann, friend and foster brother of Enver Pasha, was in contact with him regarding Turkish national and international issues; Enver Pasha’s letters from the Tripolitanian war (1912-1913) and a draft of his unpublished autobiography accompany these papers. Other papers include the Grand Vizier Talat Pasha’s unpublished autobiography as well as some correspondence with Ernst Jackh; Baron Oppenheim’s designs for the Holy War of the Islamic world from India to Morocco, 1915; information about native Moslems led by the German Intelligence Service; the “Armenian Massacres” of 1915-1917, as reported to the German Ambassador, Baron Wangenheim, in Constantinople, by observers in Asia Minor, and by him to the Foreign Office in Berlin; and a collection of political posters of the Young Turkish revolution of 1908. / Purchased from Ernst Jackh, 1949. –Descriptions of the Edward M. House Papers and Associated Collections in Manuscripts and Archives

Author and academic (1875-1959), was born in Urach Germany. He promoted the German-Turkish Alliance 1908-1914 founded the German Turkish Association 1912 and became professor of Turkish history at the University of Berlin 1914 Jäckh was a member of the diplomatic service during World War I and with Friedrich Naumann an organizer of the liberal movement in Germany 1902-1912 He helped found the German League of Nations and the Hochschule für Politik. Jäckh emigrated to Britain in the 1930s and held the position of international director of the New Commonwealth Institute until 1940 when he became Professor of Public Law and Government at Columbia University specializing in the politics of Germany the Balkans and the Middle East. His published books include Albanian War, Der Austeigende Halbmonde, Background of the Middle East, Deutschland im Orient, and and Des Goldenen Pflug.

League of Nations Bibliography – Jackh, Ernst. Germany and the League: An Address Delivered before the Foreign Policy Association in New York, Philadelphia and Boston . New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1927. * Jackh, Ernst. The New Germany: Three Lectures by Ernst Jackh . London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

Special Collections of the Armenian Research Center “Finally, we also have a microfilm copy of Ernst Jäckh’s papers from 1908 to 1917 , when he was deeply involved in the affairs of the Ottoman Empire. …” (i.e., Armenian genocide, etc.)


This is very good:

(excerpts from ^) “…the German Liberals around Friedrich Naumann.” … “From the circle around Naumann came Ernest Jäckh (1875-1959), purveyor of Young Turk propaganda (and later professor at Columbia University…” … “Jäckh however did not live in Constantinople for too long and can’t be considered a “Bosporus German” in the true sense. Another visitor to Constantinople during the First World War was Theodor Heuss.” … “…a friend of Naumann and Jäckh, who designed the German Cultural Centre in Constantinople and later became the first Federal President of Germany from 1949 until 1959. Active Social Democrats in Constantinople included Alexander Parvus (1867-1924) (in the city from 1910-1914), and Dr. Friedrich Schrader…” … “While Ernst Jäckh, another journalist, later professor of Turkish history in Berlin, proclaimed Turkification, rather than Germanization, as the goal of …”, etc.

“The Weimar Republic was a marriage of convenience between the varying political entities wrestling for control of Germany. Therefore, it is not surprising that many of its leaders behaved unreasonably, choosing to pursue the agendas of their respective political parties instead of the national agenda, despite the reasonable actions of other Weimar Politicians (e.g., Matthias Erzberger’s proposed taxation program of 1919). Additionally, the reasonable behavior of scholars such as Friedrich Naumann and Ernst Jäckh, who recognized the need for a change in German political theory and attempted to achieve it by founding an institute for political study, was overshadowed by prejudiced instruction and decidedly uncritical analysis of regularly inaccurate material. This absence of political reason and intellectual skepticism facilitated Germany’s tragic descent into Nazism.”

Germany’s Adventures in the Orient A History of Ambivalent Semi “German-Ottoman relations initially, shortly before the World War the ‘idealists’ (Ernst Jäckh) gained the upper hand. This paper will demonstrate that …”


118.) Jahoda, Fritz (1934, 1939-1941, 1944) Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, NY / Music

See full size image Fritz Jahoda, conductor, pianist, professor and chairman of the Music Department of the City College of New York (part of the CUNY).


119.) Jakobson, Roman (1940-1944) New School for Social Research (NYC) / Philology

 Roman Osipovich Jakobson, (Russian, Роман Осипович Якобсон), (1896–1982) was a Russian linguist and literary critic, associated with the Formalist school. He became one of the most influential linguists of the 20th century by pioneering the development of structural analysis of language, poetry, and art. / Jakobson was born to a well-to-do family in Russia of Jewish descent, and he developed a fascination with language at a very young age. As a student he was a leading figure of the Moscow Linguistic Circle and took part in Moscow’s active world of avant-garde art and poetry. The linguistics of the time was overwhelmingly neogrammarian and insisted that the only scientific study of language was to study the history and development of words across time (the diachronic approach, in Saussure’s terms). Jakobson, on the other hand, had come into contact with the work of Ferdinand de Saussure, and developed an approach focused on the way in which language’s structure served its basic function (synchronic approach) – to communicate information between speakers.

1920 was a year of political upheaval in Russia, and Jakobson relocated to Prague as a member of the Soviet diplomatic mission to continue his doctoral studies. He immersed himself both into the academic and cultural life of pre-war Czechoslovakia and established close relationships with a number of Czech poets and literary figures. He also made an impression on Czech academics with his studies of Czech verse. In 1926, together with Vilém Mathesius and others he became one of the founders of the “Prague school” of linguistic theory (other members included Nikolai Trubetzkoi, René Wellek, Jan Mukařovský). There his numerous works on phonetics helped continue to develop his concerns with the structure and function of language. Jakobson’s universalizing structural-functional theory of phonology, based on a markedness hierarchy of distinctive features, was the first successful solution of a plane of linguistic analysis according to the Saussurean hypotheses. (This theory achieved its most canonical exposition in a book co-authored with Morris Halle.) This mode of analysis has been since applied to the plane of Saussurean sense by his protegé Michael Silverstein in a series of foundational articles in functionalist linguistic typology.

Jakobson left Prague at the start of WWII for Scandinavia, where he was associated with the Copenhagen linguistic circle, and such thinkers as Louis Hjelmslev. As the war advanced west, he fled to New York City to become part of the wider community of intellectual émigrés who fled there. He was also closely associated with the Czech emigree community during that period. At the École libre des hautes études, a sort of Francophone university-in-exile, he met and collaborated with Claude Lévi-Strauss, who would also become a key exponent of structuralism. He also made the acquaintance of many American linguists and anthropologists, such as Franz Boas, Benjamin Whorf, and Leonard Bloomfield. He became a consultant to the International Auxiliary Language Association, which would present Interlingua in 1951.

In 1949 Jakobson moved to Harvard University, where he remained until retirement. In his last decade he maintained an office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was an honorary Professor Emeritus. In the early 1960s Jakobson shifted his emphasis to a more comprehensive view of language and began writing about communication sciences as whole. / Based on the Organon-Model by Karl Bühler, Jakobson distinguishes six communication functions, each associated with a dimension of the communication process: One of the six functions is always the dominant function in a text and usually related to the type of text. In poetry, the dominant function is the poetic function: the focus is on the message itself. The true hallmark of poetry is according to Jakobson “the projection of the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection to the axis of combination”. [The exact and complete explanation of this principle is beyond the scope of this article.] Very broadly speaking, it implies that poetry successfully combines and integrates form and function, that poetry turns the poetry of grammar into the grammar of poetry, so to speak. A famous example of this principle is the political slogan “I like Ike.” Jakobson’s theory of communicative functions was first published in “Closing Statements: Linguistics and Poetics” (in Thomas A. Sebeok, Style In Language, Cambridge Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1960, p. 350-377).

Legacy / Jakobson’s three principal ideas in linguistics play a major role in the field to this day: linguistic typology, markedness, and linguistic universals. The three concepts are tightly intertwined: typology is the classification of languages in terms of shared grammatical features (as opposed to shared origin), markedness is (very roughly) a study of how certain forms of grammatical organization are more “natural” than others, and linguistic universals is the study of the general features of languages in the world. He also influenced Nicolas Ruwet’s paradigmatic analysis and Friedemann Schulz von Thuns four sides model. / Jakobson’s work has been an influence on the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan and philosophy of Giorgio Agamben


120.) John, Fritz (1934-1944) Ballition Res. Lab, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. / Mathematics

Fritz John was appointed an assistant professor at the University of Kentucky in 1935 and he emigrated to the United States becoming naturalised in 1941. He stayed at Kentucky until 1946 apart from 1943 to 1945 during which he did war service for the Ballistic Research Laboratory at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In 1946 he moved to New York University where he remained.”–wikid

“the Radon transform” / a year in St John’s College as a research scholar. He published papers at this time on the Radon transform, a research theme which he would continue to develop for the first period of his career.

The University of Kentucky at Lexington offered John an appointment as assistant professor in 1935 and he emigrated to the United States becoming naturalised in 1941. From 1935 till 1946 John lectured at the University of Kentucky where he was promoted to associate professor in 1942. In that year he held a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship. He was released by the University of Kentucky from 1943 to 1945 while he did war service, being sent to the Ballistic Research Laboratory at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as a mathematician for the U.S. War Department.

He became an associate professor at New York University in 1946 where he stayed for the rest of his life. In 1950-51 the National Bureau of Standards appointed him as Director of research for the Institute of Numerical Analysis while at New York University he became involved with the Courant Group, an applied mathematics research team which Richard Courant was building based on the Göttingen model. John was promoted to professor at New York University in 1951 and continued his association with the Institute of Mathematical Sciences which was set up under Courant’s leadership in 1953.


121.) Jollos, Victor (1933-1943) U of Wisconsin / Zoology

Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass 1934

Victor Jollos immigrated in 1933, became an American citizen in 1939, and died in 1941 without ever having gained a permanent position. Jollos, who was forty-five years old when he came to the United States, remained at the University of Wisconsin for four years even though there was not a permanent position for him. Jollos had received aid from the Emergency Committee before the Executives decided to limit its financial aid to scholars at Universities that would eventually absorb the refugee’s entire salary. Although the Emergency Committee stopped funding Jollos in fall 1935, members of the Executive Committee, including Dunn, continued to find a solution for the precarious nature of Jollos’s residence in the United States.
Viktor Jollos Madison, Wisconsin), KWI für Biologie, Berlin-Dahlem, ständiger Gastforscher, außerordentlicher Professor an der Universität Berlin; rassistisch verfolgt, im Herbst 1933 aus dem Institut vertrieben, Emigration in die USA; 1933—1935 Gastprofessor für Zoologie und Genetik an der University of Wisconsin in Madison, danach bis zu seinem Tod Forschungsarbeiten ohne feste Anstellung und ohne angemessene wissenschaftliche Ausstattung. 12.8.1887, Odessa — 5.7.1941, (12.8.1887, Odessa — 5.7.1941,

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