The Trouble With My Head

Lehmann – Lips

155.) Lehmann, Fritz (1933-1941) New School for Social Research / Economics

Gerhard Colm Papers “1938, Publication with Fritz Lehmann of Economic Consequences of Recent American Tax Policy. 1933-1939, Professor of Economics at the New School for Social …” library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger029.htm / Alfred Kähler, and Fritz Lehmann (money and banking) came in 1934. Felix. Kaufmann, a philosopher who wrote on economic methodology, arrived in 1938. …” http://www.informaworld.com/index/727497814.pdf / “(1938). Fascism for Whom? (p. 341), New York: W. W. Norton and Co. Ascoli, Max, & Lehmann, Fritz (Eds.). (1937). Political and Economic Democracy, (p. …” rer.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/10/1/3

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156.) Lehmann-Hartleben, Karl (1933-1945) NYU / Archaeology

Karl Lehmann [Leo Heinrich] (Lehmann-Hartleben until after 1945) / Date born: 1894 / Place born: Rostock, Germany / Date died: 1960 / Place died: Basel, Switzerland

Architectural and sculpture historian of classical Greece and Rome; specialist bronze statuary; NYU professor, 1935-1960. Lehmann was raised Lutheran from cultured parents were of Jewish ancestry. His father was a Professor of Law. Lehmann studied under Ferdinand Noack (1865-1931) at Tübingen, under Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v.) in Munich, as well as Göttingen in the years directly before World War I. During the war he served in the Red Cross for Germany and as an interpreter for the Turkish navy, the latter giving him access to much of Asia Minor. He received his Ph.D. in classical Archaeology from the University of Berlin in 1922 under Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1848-1931). He was an Assistant Director of the Institute of German Archaeology in Rome before teaching as a Privatdozent in Berlin. In 1925 he moved to Heidelberg, teaching there until an appointment as professor of archaeology and director of the archaeological museum, 1929-1933, in Münster, Germany. In 1933 he was discharged from service by the Nazis early in 1933 because of his Jewish heritage and liberal politics. He spent two years as an independent scholar in Italy before immigrating to the United States where he joined New York University as a Professor at the Institute for Fine Arts in 1935. At NYU he was greatly influenced by his colleague, W. S. Cook (q.v.). Lehmann also founded the Archaeological Research Fund at NYU. He continued his archaeological work in the Mediterranean, including the excavations of the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on the island of Samothrace begun in 1938 and continued after World War II. He became a United States citizen in 1944. Throughout his American career, he lectured and sat on dissertation committees. He was engaged in editing the Samothrace publications for the Bollingen Foundation in Switzerland at the time of his death. His students included Phyllis Pray Bober (q.v.). / http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/lehmannk.htm

Vassar History, 1930-1939 “The bimillennium of Augustus Caesar was commemorated by the Department of Latin, with an exhibition in the library, a lecture by Karl Lehmann-Hartleben, …” historian.vassar.edu/chronology/1930_1939.html Karl Lehmann “Lehmann, Karl [Leo Heinrich] (Lehmann-Hartleben until after 1945). Date born: 1894. Place born: Rostock, Germany. Date died: 1960 …” http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/lehmannk.htm THE INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY (Founded by Louis Bamberger and … “Professor Karl Lehmann-Hartleben, of New York. University, also brought back from the excavations of Samothrace a collection of squeezes for the Insti- …” http://www.admin.ias.edu/library/hs/da/Bulletins/Bulletin8.pdf UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI “Karl Lehmann-Hartleben once proposed that the Arch of Titus had been constructed by Domitian as a tomb for his deceased brother. …” http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi/ATWOOD%20MARK%20ANDREW.pdf?acc_num=ucin1163348326 99. SARMIS-Studia Dacica “Karl Lehmann – Hartleben [6] thought that the scene was intended to contrast the savagery of the Dacians with the humane spirit of the Roman civilization, …” http://www.sarmis.org/protopopescu0703.htm

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157.) Lehner, Frederick / Friedrich (1938-1945) West Virginia State Teacher’s College / Language and Literature

“Several faculty came to UB as a result of Nazi persecution in the 1930s. Among them was Arthur Lenhoff (1885–1965), who had been a member of the Austrian Constitutional Court. Lenhoff narrowly escaped arrest by the Gestapo after the Anschluss in 1938. He began a new career as a member of the UB law school faculty. Today, Lenhoff’s books in German and English can be found in the UB Libraries.” http://www.buffalo.edu/UBT/UBT-archives/volume25number3/features/earlyyears.html

“Frederick Lehner, a Jew, had been teaching German at a university in Vienna when all his possessions had suddenly been confiscated; he and his wife had …” JULIEN GREEN The fact that one tries to discuss, to explain, to … “FREDERICK LEHNER. West Virginia State College. The fact that one tries to discuss, to explain, to set forth in detail the phenomenon …” http://www.jstor.org/stable/380846 Federation Committee Report “ton, Seattle; West Virginia: Frederick Lehner, West Virginia State College, Institute, West Virginia; Wisconsin: John D. Workman; University of Wisconsin, …” http://www.jstor.org/stable/319574 12846 WVSU 08-09 CATALOG.indd “Bulletin of. WEST VIRGINIA. STATE UNIVERSITY. Catalog 2008-2009. “Where Excellence Is a Tradition”. West Virginia State University …” http://www.wvstateu.edu/shared/content/catalog/WVSU_08-09_CATALOG.pdf

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158.) Lenhoff, Arthur (1938-1945) U of Buffalo / Law

Several faculty came to UB as a result of Nazi persecution in the 1930s. Among them was Arthur Lenhoff (1885–1965), who had been a member of the Austrian Constitutional Court. Lenhoff narrowly escaped arrest by the Gestapo after the Anschluss in 1938. He began a new career as a member of the UB law school faculty. Today, Lenhoff’s books in German and English can be found in the UB Libraries. [Arrived in ’39] * “Dieses Buch ist in englischer Sprache geschrieben!!! Friedrich Lenz: Worm in the Apple. German Traitors and Treason Prior and During World War II …” http://www.versandbuchhandelscriptorium.com/angebot/e0108worm.html / “Dr. Friedrich W. Lenz, Research Professor of Classics, at The University of Texas at Austin, died suddenly in Austin Saturday, November 15, .1969. …” <<<w/ bio http://www.utexas.edu/faculty/council/2000-2001/memorials/SCANNED/lenz.pdf

“Comments, cases and other materials on legislation. Arthur Lenhoff …” (see .pdf below). * “Press Prudence, ” Nazi Student Orders and Jim Crow “The other hero of the University of Vienna litigation was Arthur Lenhoff. … Happily, Arthur Lenhoff and his wife and daughter were able to escape from …” http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=5009262994 LEGACY “PROFESSOR ARTHUR LENHOFF. The 1961 Class of Rutgers Univer- sity School of Law, pays tribute to. Professor Arthur Lenhoff for his …” lawwiki.rutgers.edu/100years/yb/docs/yb/1961.pdf Der Einfluss deutscher Emigranten auf die Rechtsentwicklung in den … “… had just joined the faculty as law librarian: Professor Arthur Lenhoff, already estab- lished as a leading scholar of labor and public law at the time …” books.google.com/books?id=VhafwMCNMDwC&pg=PA145&lpg=PA145&dq=Arthur+Lenhoff&source=bl&ots=5Cdrw2s_Ac&sig=ej_mhfmdXTxM6clhZwDoTHi5FjM “Arthur Lenhoff, Reciprocity: The Legal Aspect of a Perennial Idea, 49 NW. U. L. REV. 619, 623. (1954) (quoting Compania Naviera Vascongada v. …” PEP Web – Approaches to Human Personality: William James and … “Professor Arthur Lenhoff tells me how successful Freud was when he accepted an invitation to talk to a large student gathering in the early …” http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=PSAR.047C.0052A Tuxedo Park: A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science … “Tuxedo Park: A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science that Changed the Course of World War II.(Book Review) … find Parameters articles.” http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-111852960.html APPENDIX 6 ocasoj “Arthur Lenhoff, “Development of the Concept of Eminent Domain”, (1942) 42 Colum. L.Rev. 596, 598 n. 15, cited in Andrew S Gold, “Regulatory Takings and …” http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/commit.nsf/(Report+Lookup+by+Com+ID)/8D89047DADC4CF0C48256E9100809C9A/$file/pf.lan.040514.rpf.007.app6.pdf UB Today: The Early Years “Among them was Arthur Lenhoff (1885–1965), who had been a member of the Austrian Constitutional Court. Lenhoff narrowly escaped arrest by the Gestapo after …” http://www.buffalo.edu/UBT/UBT-archives/volume25number3/features/earlyyears.html Avotaynu list – Avotaynu Home Page “… Carl 08.12.1875 A Lenhoff, Arthur 25.10.1885 A Lenikus, ….. Alice 15.11. 1923 A Lobl, Alice 01.05.1894 A Lobl, Arthur 05.06.1872 A Lobl, …” http://www.avotaynu.com/holocaustlist/l.mt.htm “Arthur Lenhoff,. Comments, Cases and Other Materials on. Legislation. (Buffalo,. N.Y., 1949). Gerald C. MacCallum, Jr., ” Legislative Intent”,. (1966) 75 …” http://www.scotlawcom.gov.uk/downloads/rep11.pdf

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159.) Lenz, Friedrich (1933-1944) New School for Social Research / Classical Language & Literature

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160.) Leslau, Wolf (1942-1945) New School for Social Research / Languages

Wolf Leslau (2006) was a scholar of Semitic languages and one of the foremost authorities on Semitic languages of Ethiopia

Leslau was born in Krzepice, a small village near Częstochowa. As a child his family was very poor, and after contracting tuberculosis he usually had to keep a thermometer with him to monitor his body temperature. He was orphaned by the age of 10, and was raised by his brother, and received a yeshiva education.

Instead of joining the Polish army in World War I, he gave up his Polish citizenship (becoming a stateless person) and emigrated to Vienna, where he would study Semitology at the University of Vienna until 1931[3]. He then went to the Sorbonne to study under Marcel Cohen. His studies included most of the Semitic languages, including Hebrew, Aramaic, Akkadian, and Ethiopic. / Leslau was arrested by the French police and sent to an internment camp in the Pyrenees where he spent the harsh winter of 1939-1940 with his wife and child. He was later moved to Camp des Milles, a concentration camp near Aix-en-Provence. However, with the assistance of an international aid group, he escaped with his family before the Nazis took over the camp in 1942. They escaped to the United States. He later became a naturalized U.S. citizen.

He settled in New York, and received a .. to continue his studies of the Semitic languages in Ethiopia. He traveled throughout the country, recording endangered Ethiopian languages. For one language, Gafat, Leslau was able to locate only four speakers. It became extinct shortly thereafter. / In 1955, he moved to Los Angeles, California, where he joined the faculty of University of California, Los Angeles. He was instrumental in establishing the Department of Near Eastern Studies and the Center for Near East Studies. ‘ Leslau specialized in previously unrecorded and unstudied Semitic languages of Ethiopia. His first trip to Ethiopia in 1946 was funded by a Guggenheim fellowship. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf_Leslau

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161.) Lewin, Kurt (1933-1944) U of Iowa / Psychology

 Kurt Zadek Lewin (1890-1947), a German-American psychologist, is one of the modern pioneers of social, organizational, and applied psychology.

Lewin is often recognized as the “founder of social psychology” and was one of the first researchers to study group dynamics and organizational development. -wiki

“In the future history of our psychological era there are two names which, I believe, will stand out above all others: those of Freud and Lewin. Freud will be revered for his first unraveling of the complexities of the individual history, and Lewin for his first envisioning of the dynamic laws according to which individuals behave…” (E. C. Tolman, 1948, p. 4)

Kurt Lewin was born in Prussia in 1890 and died in Massachusetts in 1947. / Lewin’s studies were initially focussed in medicine and philosophy, then biology, finally psychology (though, it is said, always with a philosophical bent, ref). He earned his Ph.D. in Berlin at the tender age of 24. During World War I he earned the Iron Cross for his service in the German army. His major academic appointments included positions in Berlin (1921-1933), Iowa (1935-45), and, at the end of his life, MIT (1945-47). In addition, he held visiting appointments at Stanford, Cornell, Berkeley, and Harvard. In the years surrounding World War II, he was a consultant to a number of governmental organizations, including the Department of Agriculture, the Office of Strategic Services, the Public Health Service, and the Office of Naval Research. He was a member of many scientific organizations, and a founder of at least one, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI).

Lewin is the single most important figure in the history of social psychology, and has been called the “George Washington” of the field (Oskamp, 1992). Historians of psychology typically describe the impact of important figures in one of two ways – some great figures can be said to found a psychological system, a single coherent approach to theory and experiment, while others impact the field in a less direct but often more lasting way by founding a school of psychological thought. Lewin’s greatest impact on psychology was probably in the second of these. His impact on his students would be found in disparate strains of social psychology ranging from the descriptive (Barker, 19) to the experimental (Festinger, Schachter).

Those around him characterized Lewin as both childlike and charismatic. In his early years in America, Lewin could barely speak English, but was an energetic, excited communicator. In Allport’s (1947) obituary, he described Lewin as an original genius, one whose discourse was characterized more by completeness than by internal consistency, as a hard worker, and as deeply devoted to making the world a better place. Lewin is said to have had “a sense of musical delight in ideas” (Eric Trist, in Marrow, p. 69). He was “playful,” and “able to transmit to others a little of his own enormous creativity” (French, 1992). He infused others with his energy as well. He was, however, not a great listener, and became known for his accented dissent from the claim of a student “I sink absolute ozzer!” Taken literally, this suggests that Lewin can be seen as “disagreeable.” But for me, this well-known quote illuminates a very different aspect of Lewin’s character, and that is the teasing, playful relationship he maintained with his students. (One would be hard pressed to imagine a similar quote from a student of Titchener or MacDougall, for example).

Lewin’s life can be understood, finally, from a more dialectic stance, as a tension between opposing forces, even as a balancing of these forces (Marrow, 1969). Lewin has been called “Autocratic in his insistence on democracy.” His famous formula for framing behavior, that behavior is a function of the person and the environment, seems self-evident, but in fact is an attempt to reconcile two competing strains of modern psychology. He worked with brilliant and influential minds, yet was unable to obtain a prestigious position in the United States until 1945. He was energetic, congenial and hopeful, yet suffered terrible personal hardships, including his experience as a soldier in World War I, his failed first marriage, the distress of German reconstruction, and finally Nazism. And his best known quote is “there is nothing so practical as a good theory.” http://www.a2zpsychology.com/great_psychologists/kurt_lewin.htm

Kurt Lewin Biography (1890-1947) * By Kendra Van Wagner, About.com

Best Known For: Experiential learning / Field Theory / Group dynamics / Considered the founder of modern social psychology / Born on September 9, 1890 / 1914 – Joined the German army. / 1916 – Earned a Ph.D. from the University of Berlin. / 1921 – Became a lecturer at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin. / 1932 – Emigrated to the United States. / 1935 – Became a professor at the University of Iowa; published A Dynamic Theory of Personality. / 1944 – Established research center at MIT. / Died at age 57 on February 12, 1947 of a heart attack.

Kurt Lewin’s Early Life: Born in Prussia to a middle-class Jewish family, Kurt Lewin moved to Berlin at age 15 to attend the Gymnasium. He enrolled at the University of Frieberg in 1909 to study medicine before transferring to the University of Munich to study biology. He eventually completed a doctoral degree at the University of Berlin. / It was during his studies that he first developed an interest in Gestalt psychology. He volunteered for the German army in 1914 and was later injured in combat. These early experiences had a major impact on the development of his Field Theory and later study of group dynamics.

Career: In 1921, Kurt Lewin began lecturing on philosophy and psychology at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin. His popularity with students and prolific writing drew the attention of Stanford University, which invited him to be a visiting professor in 1930. Eventually, Lewin emigrated to the U.S. and took a teaching position at the University of Iowa, where he worked until 1944. / While Lewin emphasized the importance of theory, he also believed that theories needed to have practical applications. He began applying his research to the war effort, working for the U.S. government. Lewin also established the Group Dynamics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Training Laboratories (NTL). Lewin died of a heart attack in 1947.

Theory: Field Theory / Influenced by Gestalt psychology, Lewin developed a theory that emphasized the importance of individual personalities, interpersonal conflict, and situational variables. Lewin’s Field Theory proposed that behavior is the result of the individual and the environment. This theory had a major impact on social psychology, supporting the notion that our individual traits and the environment interact to cause behavior. / The Lewin, Lippitt, and White Study / In this study, schoolchildren were assigned to either authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-fair leadership groups. It was demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian and laissez-faire leadership. These findings prompted a wealth of research on leadership styles.

Contributions to Psychology: Kurt Lewin contributed to Gestalt psychology by expanding on gestalt theories and applying them to human behavior. He was also one of the first psychologists to systematically test human behavior, influencing experimental psychology, social psychology, and personality psychology. He was a prolific writer, publishing more than 80 articles and eight books on various psychology topics. / Lewin is known as the father of modern social psychology because of his pioneering work that utilized scientific methods and experimentation to look as social behavior. Lewin was a seminal theorist whose enduring impact on psychology makes him one of the preeminent psychologists of the 20th-century.

Selected Publications by Kurt Lewin: Lewin, K. (1935) A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill. / Lewin, K. (1936) Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Lewin, K. (1951) Field theory in social science; selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright (ed.). New York http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_lewin.htm

In 1890, he was born into a Jewish family in Mogilno, Poland (then in County of Mogilno, province of Posen, Prussia). He served in the German army when World War I began. Due to a war wound, he returned to the University of Berlin to complete his Ph.D., with Carl Stumpf (1848 – 1936) the supervisor of his doctoral thesis. He died in Newtonville, Massachusetts of a heart-attack in 1947. He was buried in his home town.

Lewin had originally been involved with schools of behavioral psychology before changing directions in research and undertaking work with psychologists of the Gestalt school of psychology, including Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Kohler. Lewin often associated with the early Frankfurt School, originated by an influential group of largely Jewish Marxists at the Institute for Social Research in Germany. But when Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933 the Institute members had to disband, moving to England and then to America. In that year, he met with Eric Trist, of the London Tavistock Clinic. Trist was impressed with his theories and went on to use them in his studies on soldiers during the Second World War.

Lewin emigrated to the United States in August 1933 and became a naturalized citizen in 1940. Lewin worked at Cornell University and for the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station at the University of Iowa. Later, he went on to become director of the Center for Group Dynamics at MIT. While working with at MIT in 1946, Lewin received a phone call from the Director of the Connecticut State Inter Racial Commission requesting help to find an effective way to combat religious and racial prejudices. He set up a workshop to conduct a ‘change’ experiment, which laid the foundations for what is now known as sensitivity training. In 1947, this led to the establishment of the National Training Laboratories, at Bethel, Maine. Carl Rogers believed that sensitivity training is “perhaps the most significant social invention of this century.”

Following WWII Lewin was involved in the psychological rehabilitation of former occupants of displaced persons camps with Dr. Jacob Fine at Harvard Medical School. When Eric Trist and A T M Wilson wrote to Lewin proposing a journal in partnership with their newly founded Tavistock Institute and his group at MIT, Lewin agreed. The Tavistock journal, Human Relations, was founded with two early papers by Lewin entitled “Frontiers in Group Dynamics”. Lewin taught for a time at Duke University. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Lewin

Kurt Lewin was born in a small village in Mogilno, a Prussian province of Posen that is now considered Poland. His father and mother owned and operated a small general store. Kurt’s family lived above the store in town. Outside of the town his family owned a small farm as well. He was the second child of four born into his family (Johnson, & Johnson, 2000., Schultz, & Schultz 2000).

At the age of fifteen his family moved to Berlin. Lewin soon enrolled in the Gymnasium where he was introduced to Greek philosophy. In 1909 Kurt enrolled at the University of Frieberg to study medicine. Later he transferred to the University of Munich to study biology. In 1910 he began school to obtain his doctorate degree in philosophy and psychology at the University of Berlin. After four years studying under Carl Stumpf he received his degree in psychology. Shortly there after he entered the Kaiser’s army and went into the infantry division. He spent four year fighting in WWI until he was wounded. He left the army as a lieutenant and obtained an iron cross (Johnson, & Johnson, 2000).

In 1917 Kurt married Maria Landsberg, a schoolteacher. She gave him two children but the marriage only lasted ten years. His first child was a daughter named Agnes who was born in 1919. The second was a son, Fritz born in 1922. In 1929 he married Gertrud Weiss. He had his third child a daughter named Miriam in 1931. His fourth child a son named Daniel came in 1933. His mother was killed in a Nazi extermination camp in 1944. In 1947 Kurt died suddenly of a heart attack (Johnson, & Johnson, 2000).

In 1921 at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin he was appointed to lecture in philosophy and psychology. Lewin’s teaching manner was enthusiastic and informal which attracted students into tight groups to discuss various social problems. They would often meet at a café across from the institute. While he was in Berlin he oversaw many experimental research studies. He had no problem allowing women to participate in both collegial discussions and significant research. This was during Tichner’s rein in America with his experimentalist who did not allow women in his group.

Lewin attended a meeting of the International Congress of Psychologist at Yale in 1929 (Schultz, & Schultz 2000).This event would be his first time in America. He presented a film on the barriers and field forces at play. It was about children learning to sit on a stone. Stanford invited Kurt to spend six months as a visiting professor in 1930. The recommendation for the job came from the Director of the Psychological Laboratory at Harvard, Edwin Boring. He had heard Kurt speak at the Yale meeting.

After his term at Stanford was over Kurt and his new wife headed home to Germany. His wife was held up due to their daughter being ill, Kurt continued on his journey. After hearing about Hitler’s rise to power his wife and daughter decided to stay in New England. Kurt was soon able to return to America due to the combined efforts of the Committee on Displaced Scholars and Ethel Waring. Dr. Warning was a specialist on child development at Cornell, and was impressed by Lewin’s work while she visited the Psychological Instute in Berlin. He came for a two-year term at Cornell’s School of Home Economics. After the funding expired at Cornell he was accepted to another two-year term in 1935 at the University of Iowa. During the time spent at Iowa he assessed the Child Welfare Research Station. This is where he stayed until 1944.

A collection of Kurt’s papers were published in English in 1935, titled “A Dynamic Theory of Personality”. The paper consisted of a comparison of German and American psychology based on observations of pre-school aged children. During 1936 a second publication was printed titled “Principles of Topological Psychology”. The year 1946 brought on another two publication “Psychological Problems in Jewish Education” and “Frontiers in Group Dynamics” (Schultz, & Schultz 2000).

Harvard University invited Kurt to be a visiting professor during the spring terms in 1938 and 1939. He chose not to go through the Psychology department but rather the Psychological Clinic instead. Henry Murray was the director of the clinic at this time. His concepts about human personality were influenced by Kurt’s theories. In 1940 Kurt became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He helped with the mobilization effort when the US entered WW II. He had the security clearance and was a consultant on a large variety of national problems related to the war.

In 1944 Kurt established the Commission on Community Interrelations (C.C.I.). Kurt also lectured on minority problems and intergroup relations, which made him quite popular. He was also looking for an academic institution for his research work on group dynamics. He came to a conclusion that it would be one of two places either MIT or UC at Berkley. MIT’s Douglas McGregor was the first to inform him of his acceptance. He left Iowa and started to build his dream on 1945.

Since his sudden death in 1947, his colleagues have published many of his unfinished papers. Lewin’s contributions to psychology were greatest in social and child psychology. Lewin also promoted educators and business leaders use sensitivity training to minimize intergroup conflict and develop the individuals’ true potential. In conclusion his contributions to psychology are still recognized and use today.

Kurt Lewin was born in a small village in Mogilno, a Prussian province of Posen that is now considered Poland. His father and mother owned and operated a small general store. Kurt’s family lived above the store in town. Outside of the town his family owned a small farm as well. He was the second child of four born into his family (Johnson, & Johnson, 2000., Schultz, & Schultz 2000).At the age of fifteen his family moved to Berlin. Lewin soon enrolled in the Gymnasium where he was introduced to Greek philosophy. In 1909 Kurt enrolled at the University of Frieberg to study medicine. Later he transferred to the University of Munich to study biology. In 1910 he began school to obtain his doctorate degree in philosophy and psychology at the University of Berlin. After four years studying under Carl Stumpf he received his degree in psychology. Shortly there after he entered the Kaiser’s army and went into the infantry division. He spent four year fighting in WWI until he was wounded. He left the army as a lieutenant and obtained an iron cross (Johnson, & Johnson, 2000).In 1917 Kurt married Maria Landsberg, a schoolteacher. She gave him two children but the marriage only lasted ten years. His first child was a daughter named Agnes who was born in 1919. The second was a son, Fritz born in 1922. In 1929 he married Gertrud Weiss. He had his third child a daughter named Miriam in 1931. His fourth child a son named Daniel came in 1933. His mother was killed in a Nazi extermination camp in 1944. In 1947 Kurt died suddenly of a heart attack (Johnson, & Johnson, 2000).In 1921 at the Psychological Institute of the University of Berlin he was appointed to lecture in philosophy and psychology. Lewin’s teaching manner was enthusiastic and informal which attracted students into tight groups to discuss various social problems. They would often meet at a café across from the institute. While he was in Berlin he oversaw many experimental research studies. He had no problem allowing women to participate in both collegial discussions and significant research. This was during Tichner’s rein in America with his experimentalist who did not allow women in his group.Lewin attended a meeting of the International Congress of Psychologist at Yale in 1929 (Schultz, & Schultz 2000).This event would be his first time in America. He presented a film on the barriers and field forces at play. It was about children learning to sit on a stone. Stanford invited Kurt to spend six months as a visiting professor in 1930. The recommendation for the job came from the Director of the Psychological Laboratory at Harvard, Edwin Boring. He had heard Kurt speak at the Yale meeting. 

After his term at Stanford was over Kurt and his new wife headed home to Germany. His wife was held up due to their daughter being ill, Kurt continued on his journey. After hearing about Hitler’s rise to power his wife and daughter decided to stay in New England. Kurt was soon able to return to America due to the combined efforts of the Committee on Displaced Scholars and Ethel Waring. Dr. Warning was a specialist on child development at Cornell, and was impressed by Lewin’s work while she visited the Psychological Instute in Berlin. He came for a two-year term at Cornell’s School of Home Economics. After the funding expired at Cornell he was accepted to another two-year term in 1935 at the University of Iowa. During the time spent at Iowa he assessed the Child Welfare Research Station. This is where he stayed until 1944.

A collection of Kurt’s papers were published in English in 1935, titled “A Dynamic Theory of Personality”. The paper consisted of a comparison of German and American psychology based on observations of pre-school aged children. During 1936 a second publication was printed titled “Principles of Topological Psychology”. The year 1946 brought on another two publication “Psychological Problems in Jewish Education” and “Frontiers in Group Dynamics” (Schultz, & Schultz 2000).

Harvard University invited Kurt to be a visiting professor during the spring terms in 1938 and 1939. He chose not to go through the Psychology department but rather the Psychological Clinic instead. Henry Murray was the director of the clinic at this time. His concepts about human personality were influenced by Kurt’s theories. In 1940 Kurt became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He helped with the mobilization effort when the US entered WW II. He had the security clearance and was a consultant on a large variety of national problems related to the war.

In 1944 Kurt established the Commission on Community Interrelations (C.C.I.). Kurt also lectured on minority problems and intergroup relations, which made him quite popular. He was also looking for an academic institution for his research work on group dynamics. He came to a conclusion that it would be one of two places either MIT or UC at Berkley. MIT’s Douglas McGregor was the first to inform him of his acceptance. He left Iowa and started to build his dream on 1945.

Since his sudden death in 1947, his colleagues have published many of his unfinished papers. Lewin’s contributions to psychology were greatest in social and child psychology. Lewin also promoted educators and business leaders use sensitivity training to minimize intergroup conflict and develop the individuals’ true potential. In conclusion his contributions to psychology are still recognized and use today.

Time Line
1890-Born in Moglino, Prussian province of Posen (now known as poland)
1914-Enters Kaiser’s Army for four years during WWI
1914-Completed Ph.D. at the University of Berlin
1917-Married Maria Landsberg
1919-First child born daughter named Agnes
1921-Appointed to lecture at the University of Berlin
1922-First son born named Fritz
1929-Maried Gertrud Weiss
1931-Second daughter born named Miriam
1932-Visiting Professor at Stanford University
1933-Second son born named Daniel
1933 Fled Germany to United States
1933-Faculty at Cornell University
1935-Published “A Dynamic Theory of Personality
1935-Professor at the University of Iowa
1936-Published “Prinicples of Topological Psychology
1940-Became an American citizen
1944-Started Research Center for Group Dynamics, M.I.T.
1944-Started Commission on Community Interrelations (C.C.I.)
1946-Published “Psychological Problems in Jewish Education”
1946-Published “Frontiers in Group Dynamics”
1947-Died of heart attack

http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/lewin.html

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162.) Lewy, Hans (1933-1936, 1939-1944) U of C, Berkeley / Mathematics

Hans Lewy (1904–1988) was an “Americanmathematician, known for his work on partial differential equations. / He was born in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland). He was awarded a Wolf Prize in Mathematics in 1986. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Lewy

Obit: Dr. Hans Lewy, 83, Mathematics Professor / Published: Friday, September 2, 1988

Hans Lewy, a professor emeritus of mathematics at the University of California at Berkeley, died of leukemia Aug. 23 in Berkeley, where he lived. He was 83 years old.

Dr. Lewy, a native of Breslau, Germany, received a doctorate in mathematics at the age of 22 from the University of Gottingen. He came to the United States when the Nazis came to power in 1933 and joined the faculty at Berkeley in 1935.

In 1950, Dr. Lewy, along with several other tenured professors at Berkeley, refused to sign a loyalty oath required by the university’s board of trustees, and he was discharged. He was reinstated when the courts ruled that the oath violated the professors’ civil rights.

Dr. Lewy retired in 1972 but continued to lecture at Berkeley until 10 weeks before his death. His work in differential equations contributed to the development of high-speed computers. He was also prominent in the fields of geometry, analysis and hydrodynamics.

He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 1964 was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He received the American Mathematical Society’s Steele Prize in 1979 and the Wolf Foundation Award in Mathematics, an international prize established in Israel, in 1985.

He is survived by his wife, the former Helen Crosby; a son, Michael, of Manhattan, and a brother, Rudolph, of Haifa, Israel. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/09/02/obituaries/dr-hans-lewy-83-mathematics-profesor.html

Hans Lewy papers, 1906–1999, 2 cartons, 1 oversize folder (2.55 lin. ft.): History of Science and Technology Collection. Advance notice required for use. Hans Lewy (1904–1988), Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at the University of California at Berkeley; born in Breslau, Germany; came to Berkeley as a lecturer in 1935; full professor 1946; member, National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Academia Nazionale dei Lincei (Rome). Consists of correspondence, writings, teaching materials, and notes relating to Lewy’s career as a mathematician in Germany and the US. Also included are biographical materials and photographs. Includes very few materials relating to the Loyalty Oath controversy at UC Berkeley.

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163.) Lewy, Julius (1933-1941, 1944) Hebrew Union College, Cincinnatti / Philology

Julius Lewy (1895-1963). “Julius Lewy adds to his previous discussion of the Habirii and the “Hebrew servant” * Most familiar with the American academic scene was the Assyriologist Julius Lewy , who had taught at the University of Giessen and headed its Oriental …” Canaanite myth and Hebrew epic: essays in the history of the … “Julius Lewy attacked Alt’s position on the basis of parallels from the Cappadocian (Old Assyrian) texts of the early second millennium ” * “And the works of Julius Lewy have clearly shown that the Cappadocian tablets are directly based on old Semitic foundations. If we wish to discover …” * Identified and reconstructed by Hildegaard and Julius Lewy in the 1940s, the calendar’s use dates back to at least the third millennium B.C. in Western …” * “H. Lewy was considered a more reliable Assyriologist than her husband, Julius Lewy. After emigration, they published mostly in Hebrew Union College Annual. …” * “The Nazi period saw the purging of Jewish scholars such as Benno Landsberger and Julius Lewy and political unreliables like Albrecht Goetze, to the ultimate …”

HEBREW UNION COLLEGE-JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION (HUC-JIR) is the oldest rabbinical seminary in the United States. Dedicated to Jewish scholarship and the training of religious leadership for the Reform movement, it has campuses in Cincinnati, New York, Los Angeles, and Jerusalem. The school was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1875, by Isaac M. *Wise to offer “general rabbinical instruction … for the Jewish ministry.” Wise was convinced that “Judaism would have no future in America unless … it would become reconciled with the spirit of the age” and the Jewish community found it possible to “educate American rabbis for the American pulpit.” After a 25-year struggle, Wise succeeded in establishing a Union of American Hebrew Congregations (today: Union for Reform Judaism) whose primary object was the founding of HUC. President until his death (1900), Wise was succeeded by Kaufmann *Kohler (1903–21), Julian *Morgenstern (1921–47), Nelson *Glueck (1947–71), Alfred Gottschalk (1971–96), Sheldon Zimmerman (1996–2000) and David Ellenson (2001– ). Initially intended as a rabbinical school for all American Jews, following adoption of the radical Pittsburgh Platform by Reform rabbis in 1885, it took on the character of a Reform denominational institution.

In 1922 Stephen S. *Wise founded the Jewish Institute of Religion (JIR) in New York to provide training “for the Jewish ministry, research, and community service.” Students were to serve either Reform or traditional pulpits. Wise remained president until 1948. Housing JIR next to his Free Synagogue on West 68th Street, he hoped that its graduates would generate other Free Synagogues “animated by the same spirit of free inquiry, of warm Jewish feeling, and of devotion to the cause of social regeneration.” JIR from the start inclined to Zionism, in contrast to HUC, which at the time did not favor Jewish nationalism. Motivated largely by budgetary difficulties, Wise accepted the prospect of JIR’s merger with HUC once the biblical archaeologist Nelson Glueck assumed the presidency. Negotiations were completed in 1948 and in 1950 the two schools merged. In 1954 a school in Los Angeles was chartered and, in 1963, primarily as a result of Glueck’s efforts, a Jerusalem campus, initially devoted to archaeology, was opened.

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164.) Liepe, Wolfgang (1933-1945) Yankton College, Yankton, S.D. / Language and Literature

Wolfgang Liepe (1888-1962).

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165.) Lips, Julius (1933-1939, 1943-1944) 640 Riverside Dr., NYC / Anthropology

Julius Ernst Lips, Dr. jur. utr., Dr. phil. (* 8. September 1895 in Saarbrücken; † 21. Januar 1950 in Leipzig) war ein deutscher Ethnologe, Soziologe und Antifaschist.

Von 1914 bis 1916 war er Soldat im Ersten Weltkrieg. Lips studierte anschließend Rechts-, Human-, Wirtschaftswissenschaften und Psychologie in Leipzig und beendete sein Studium mit den Titeln Dr. phil. (1919) und Dr. jur. utr. (1925). Ab 1925 unternahm er Reisen innerhalb Europas und nach Amerika. Er war anschließend Angestellter am Museum für Ethnologie in Köln. Von 1926 bis 1933 war er Mitglied der Fakultät der Universität Köln. 1926 habilitierte er und wurde Privatdozent in Völkerkunde und Soziologie. Von 1929 bis 1933 war Lips Professor für Völkerkunde und Soziologie an der Universität Köln und Direktor des Kölner Museums für Völkerkunde (heute Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum).

Gegner der Nationalsozialisten / Er weigerte sich, die Ethnologie in den Dienst der nationalsozialistischen Rassenlehre zu stellen und legte seine Professur nieder. Von den nationalsozialistischen Behörden wurde er wegen „Verleumdung” des Regimes angeklagt. Daraufhin musste er Deutschland verlassen. 1938 wurde ihm der Doktortitel in Leipzig aberkannt.

Emigration / 1934 emigrierte Lips über Paris in die USA, wo er zunächst als Professor für Anthropologie an der Columbia University lehrte. Von 1937 bis 1939 war er Leiter des Instituts für Anthropologie an der Howard University in Washington D.C.. 1937 gründete er an der Howard University, der ersten „schwarzen Universität” der USA den Lehrstuhl für Völkerkunde. Bis 1938 unternahm er jährliche Reisen nach Europa, vor allem nach Paris. Ab 1940 war er Mitglied der Fakultät der New School for Social Research in New York.

Widerstand Lips nahm an Einheitsfrontversuchen ähnlich dem Lutetia-Kreis in Frankreich teil. 1937 betätigte er sich im Bund Freiheitlicher Sozialisten. 1944 war er Mitglied des Council for a Democratic Germany.

Rückkehr / 1948 kehrte er über Kopenhagen nach Deutschland zurück. Trotz des Angebotes, seine Lehrtätigkeit in Köln wieder aufnehmen zu können, entschied er sich 1949 für den Ruf nach Leipzig, weil er eine Zusammenarbeit mit den nationalsozialistisch belasteten Wissenschaftlern in Köln ablehnte. Er wurde Professor an der Universität Leipzig, 1949 deren Direktor und spezialisierte sich auf Urrecht und wirtschaftliche Humanwissenschaften, mit Forschungsschwerpunkt auf verschiedene Indianerstämme. 1947 forschte er zusammen mit seiner Frau, der ebenfalls bekannten Ethnologin Eva Lips, bei den Naskapi-Indianern in Labrador und den Ojibwa-Indianer. Nach seinem Tod im Jahre 1950 übernahm seine Frau die Herausgabe seiner Werke. Das Leipziger Institut erhielt nach seinem Tode den Namen Julius Lips-Institut für Völkerkunde und Vergleichende Rechtssoziologie.

Werke (Auswahl) / The Savage Hits Back, New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1937. / Der Weiße im Spiegel der Farbigen, Leipzig, Seemann, 1983. / Tents in the Wilderness, 1942 (deutsch 1946: Zelte in der Wildnis. Indianerleben in Labrador, 1946). / The Origin of Things, 1947 (deutsch 1951: Vom Ursprung der Dinge. Eine Kulturgeschichte des Menschen). / Die Erntevölker, eine wichtige Phase in der Entwicklung der menschlichen Geschichte. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Lips

Werner Röder, Herbert A. Strauss (Hrsg.): Biographisches Handbuch der deutschsprachigen Emigration nach 1933/International Biographical Dictionary of Central European Emigrés 1933–1945, Bd. 1: Politik, Wirtschaft, Öffentliches Leben, München 1980; Bd. 2: The Arts, Sciences, and Literature, München 1983; Bd. 3: Gesamtregister, München 1983.

All rabbinical and cantorial students spend the first year of their studies at the Jerusalem campus, which also houses a rabbinical program for Israelis as well as a school and museum of biblical archaeology. The Cincinnati, New York, and Los Angeles campuses all offer a rabbinical program leading to ordination. The Cincinnati campus also has a graduate school for Jews and Christians, which is especially strong in studies focusing on Bible and the Ancient Near East. The Hebrew Union College Annual (founded in 1924) and the Hebrew Union College Press are also located in Cincinnati. The New York campus includes a School of Sacred Music, which trains cantors for the Reform movement, and a doctor of ministries program, whereas the principal School of Education and the School of Jewish Communal Service are both located in Los Angeles. The HUC-Skirball Museum in Los Angeles possesses a very rich collection of archaeological artifacts and general Judaica.

Situated on the 18-acre Clifton Avenue campus, the Cincinnati school also houses the *American Jewish Archives, which publishes its own journal, the American Jewish Periodical Center, a small museum of Judaica, the Center for Holocaust and Humanity Education, and, in conjunction with the University of Cincinnati, an Ethics Center. The Cincinnati Library and Rare Book Building contain some 450,000 volumes, 160 incunabula and 6,200 manuscripts, including the Eduard Birnbaum Manuscript Collection in Jewish Music, making it one of the foremost libraries of Judaica in the world. Smaller, but significant collections are housed at the other campuses.

The HUC-JIR faculty, which has included some of the most notable American and European scholars, has over 60 ranked members, many of them Reform rabbis. Among the scholars of international renown who taught at HUC-JIR in earlier years are the talmudists Moses Mielziner and Jacob Lauterbach, the philosopher David Neumark, the historians Jacob Mann, Guido Kisch, and Jacob Rader Marcus, the semiticist Julius Lewy, the musicologist Abraham Z. Idelsohn, and the biblical scholar Harry M. Orlinsky.

In 1972 Hebrew Union College became the first rabbinical seminary to ordain women as rabbis, and it regularly admits students regardless of sexual orientation. In the early 21st century the school was strongly oriented toward Zionism and to high academic standards. In recent years its curriculum has placed greater emphasis on practically oriented clinical pastoral education. It remains the only institution within the American Reform movement that prepares men and women for the various roles of spiritual, intellectual, educational, and communal leadership.

Although within Reform Jewry the congregational Union for Reform Judaism and the Central Conference of American Rabbis are the more activist in taking stands on contemporary American and Jewish issues, HUC-JIR serves as the principal intellectual resource of the movement. By the year 2005 it had ordained more than 2,500 rabbis (of whom about 400 are women), invested 400 cantors, and graduated over 500 communal service workers and 300 educators. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0008_0_08632.html

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