The Trouble With My Head

Loewenstein – Marck

166.) Loewenstein, Karl (1933-1944) Amherest College / Law

 Karl Loewenstein (Munich, 1891Heidelberg, 1973) was a German philosopher and political scientist, regarded as one of the prominent figures of Constitutional law in the twentieth century.

His research and investigations into the deep typology of the different constitutions have had some impact on the Western constitutional thought. He studied in his native city of Munich (Bavaria), where he got a doctor’s degree in Public law and Political science. / When Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party took power in 1933, he exiled in the United States, country where he would carry out most of his doctrine work and writings. etc.

“The American Political Science Association named Karl Loewenstein as a “convener” of a panel on comparative government less than a decade after his arrival in the United States. The panel’s deliberations produced a report that reflected the effect that World War II was having on the field. Its report asserted that “comparative government in the narrow sense of descriptive analysis of foreign institutions is an anachronism.” It continued that “unless the customary juxtaposition of descriptive material, country by country, was replaced by an effective functional comparison, the actual achievement would belie the very name of the discipline.” The report went on to declare that Only rarely is the attempt made really to compare political institutions and functions in the sense that a common denominator for diversified phenomena is found. . . . It is not accidental that American political science has produced so few books and treatises on the state in general, while there is an abundance of Continental European literature. . . . “

“…The perhaps more important related question of the motives and expectations of those responsible for Schmitt’s various arrests and internments, culminating in Nuremberg, has likewise been illuminated by additional new evidence in the Karl Loewenstein Papers. These papers now provide a fuller, well-documented, and more accurate account than the various contradictory and inaccurate explanations Kempner and others reiterated for over half a century. Among these documents are Loewenstein’s diaries during his service in the legal department of OMGUS in Berlin and his evaluations and initiatives regarding Schmitt contained in his various reports to OMGUS urging Schmitt be arrested and tried as a “war criminal” who “contributed more for the defense of the Nazi regime” than any other individual. The substantial extant evidence clearly contradicts the repeated claims of Kempner and others that Schmitt was already under automatic arrest, interned in Berlin, and sent to Nuremberg at the request of the American Military Government.

Instead, archival material shows that the impetus for the various arrests and internments of Schmitt from August 1945 to April 1947, as well as the push for his prosecution, emanated from German émigrés in OMGUS or with prosecuting teams in Nuremberg. At each stage, they took the initiative and persisted in action against him. Moreover, all had known him personally, or of him professionally, as a colleague, student, and/or political opponent in Weimar and the early stages of the Third Reich. After a year of internment without charges, initiated by an insistent Loewenstein, Schmitt had been cleared by both the American and German authorities because he presented no security threat and no other grounds existed for his incarceration. He was living free in Berlin by October 1945, when months later new initiatives brought his re-arrest and Nuremberg interrogations, where once again, when examined, the evidence showed no case against him.

Indeed, when in his OMGUS reports Loewenstein wrote from personal knowledge of Schmitt in Weimar and an extensive scholarly familiarity with his works at that time, he actually refuted Kempner’s claims that Schmitt had sought to undermine Weimar democracy, establish a dictatorship, and for thirty years promoted the conquest of Europe. For Loewenstein depicts Schmitt as one of the most world-renowned “political writers of our time,” whose analysis of Weimar’s political structure, if followed, “might have led to its preservation.” Moreover, Schmitt’s Verfassungslehre was “probably the best treatise on democratic constitutional law in Germany,” and earlier than most he warned against the “overthrow, by legal methods, of the Weimar Republic by Hitler.” Schmitt’s subsequent turn to Nazism, Loewenstein argued, was an opportunistic path of a morally flawed personality with inherent authoritarian tendencies.

‘militant democracy’ capable of defending itself against its internal and external enemies. This concept had been introduced by the exiled German political scientist Karl Loewenstein in 1937. At that time, one European country after the other had been taken over by authoritarian movements using democratic means to disable democracy. Loewenstein argued that democracies were incapable of defending themselves against fascist movements, if they continued to subscribe to ‘democratic fundamentalism’, ‘legalistic blindness’ and an ‘exaggerated formalism of the rule of law’.12 Part of the new challenge was that, according to Loewenstein, fascism had no proper intellectual content, relying on a kind of ‘emotionalism’ with which democracies could not compete. Consequently, democracies had to find, above all, political and legislative answers – as opposed to ‘emotional ones’ – in order to confront to anti-democratic forces; here, Loewenstein thought of measures such as banning parties and militias. Democracies, according to this vision of democratic selfdefence, should also restrict the rights to assembly and free speech, and, not least, the activities of those suspected of supporting fascist movements – who could be ‘guilty by association’. As Loewenstein put it, ‘fire should be fought with fire’. And that fire could only be lit by a new, ‘disciplined’ or even ‘authoritarian’ democracy.”


167.) Loewner [or Lowner], Karl / Charles (1934, 1938-1945) Brown U. (Providence, R.I.) / Mathematics

 Charles Loewner (1893, Lány, Bohemia1968, Stanford, California) was an American mathematician. His name was Karel Löwner in Czech and Karl Löwner in German.

Loewner received his Ph.D. from the University of Prague in 1917 under supervision of Georg Pick. One of his central mathematical contributions is the proof of the Bieberbach conjecture in the first highly nontrivial case of the third coefficient. He worked at the University of Berlin, University of Prague, Louisville University, Brown University, Syracuse University and eventually at Stanford University. His students include Lipman Bers, Roger Horn, Adriano Garsia, and P. M. Pu.

Charles Loewner has several versions of his name. As we shall explain below, he was a Czech whose education was in German. His name in Czech was Karel Löwner but he was known as Karl Löwner (using the German version of his first name). He adopted the English version of his name, Charles Loewner, later in life after going to the United States. We shall refer to him in this article as ‘Charles’ or as ‘Loewner’ even during the period when he certainly was not using these versions.

Charles was born into a Jewish family who lived in the village of Lany, about 30 km from Prague. His father was Sigmund Löwner, who owned a store in the village. Although Jewish, and living near Prague, Sigmund was a lover of German culture and believed strongly in education, particularly German style education. Charles was brought up in a large family, having four brothers and five sisters; only eight of the nine children survived childhood however. Although he would be educated in German, the family spoke Czech at home.

In keeping with his father’s wish to have his children educated in the German tradition, Charles was sent to a German Gymnasium in Prague where not only the tradition but also the language was German. He graduated from the school in 1912 and, in that year, he began his studies in the German section of the Charles University of Prague. He embarked on a university course which would lead directly to a doctorate, rather than the somewhat lower level course which would lead to a qualification as a school teacher.

In Prague Loewner’s research supervisor was Georg Pick who was himself a student of Leo Königsberger. Loewner worked on geometric function theory for his doctorate and after submitting his thesis he received a Ph.D. in 1917. He was then appointed as an Assistant at the German Technical University in Prague and he worked there for four and a half years, from late 1917 to 1922. It was not a mathematically stimulating environment for Loewner who found that his colleagues were not involved in deep research.

When Loewner was offered a position at the University of Berlin in 1922 he took up the offer enthusiastically, even though it meant that he was still going to be an Assistant. Although it was a lowly position, Loewner now had colleagues such as Schmidt, Schur, Alfred Brauer and his brother Richard Brauer, Hopf, von Neumann, and Szego. This is a stunning array of talent which the provided the mathematically stimulating environment which Loewner had lacked at the German Technical University in Prague. Bers writes [Charles Loewner, Collected papers (Boston, 1988).’,2)”2]:-

Loewner often spoke of his time in Berlin, clearly a happy period of his life. After Prague, the cosmopolitan capital of the Weimar republic must have felt like another world. … Mathematical life was at a high pitch; for the first time in his life Loewner was surrounded by his mathematical equals.Loewner began to move up the academic hierarchy from being an assistant to teaching as a Privatdozent in Berlin. Then in 1928 he was appointed as extraordinary professor at Cologne, a position he held for two years before returning to the Charles University of Prague in 1939. His initial appointment at Prague was as an extraordinary professor but he was soon promoted to full professor.

On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles. All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired. Of course this did not affect Loewner in Prague, but as he watched the suffering of his Jewish colleagues in Germany he began to become increasingly uneasy. He did all he could to help the Jewish mathematicians who were dismissed from their posts in Germany.

If the political situation gave him cause for concern, his own life was filled with happiness at this time. He married Elisabeth Alexander in 1934. She came from Breslau and was a trained singer. Loewner took piano lessons so that he could accompany his wife as she practised her singing. In 1936 their daughter Marion was born and they lived happily in Prague, seeing the reality of what was happening in Germany and fearing the inevitable outcome of events there. Preparing for the inevitable after the Germans marched into Austria, Loewner took English lessons so that he would be ready for the day he had to leave his homeland.

Among the students Loewner supervised in Prague was Lipa Bers. Bers said that at first he failed to understand Loewner, since he felt he took little interest in his work. However Bers soon came to understand Loewner’s methods which were to give his students as much help and encouragement as he felt they required – and Bers was a talented student who needed comparatively little support.

Before moving on to describe the next stage of Loewner’s life we should comment of the mathematics he had produced up to this time. It was mathematics of the highest quality, but Loewner had a policy which meant that he only published results he felt were significant. He only published six papers during the 25 years following the time that he began his research activities. However it is not an exaggeration to describe some of these as masterpieces.

As we have already mentioned, Loewner’s research was on geometric function theory. He wrote a series of papers on this topic, culminating in one where he proved a special case of the Bieberbach conjecture in 1923. The Bieberbach conjecture states that if f is a complex function
given by the series f (z) = a0 + a1z + a2z2 + a3z3 + … Bieberbach conjecture. Bers writes:- Bers believes that most of the credit for this escape must go to Loewner’s wife who worked tirelessly to achieve it [Charles Loewner, Collected papers (Boston, 1988).’,2)”2]:- Von Neumann arranged a position for him at Louisville University and the committee set up in the United States to deal with refugees such as the Loewners agreed to pay his salary for the first year. It was not easy for the 46 year old, highly respected mathematician, to start from the bottom again, but that is what he had to do. Times were hard for Loewner [Charles Loewner, Collected papers (Boston, 1988).’,2)”2]:- Charles Loewner, Collected papers (Boston, 1988).’,2)”2]:- Bergman and Szego, and he always knew how to make new friends. He had people to make music with and people to hike with Bers as follows (see [Charles Loewner, Collected papers (Boston, 1988).’,2)”2]):- semigroups of such mappings. Later on he looked at such semigroups in more abstract settings and produced some further beautiful results characterising projective mappings and certain geometric objects. said that he got his best mathematics; ideas while walking). He was a magnificent lecturer and students flocked to his courses and to his famous problem seminar. Only the untimely death of Elisabeth Loewner in 1956 darkened the California years.

which maps the unit disc conformally in a one-one way then, if |z| < 1, |an| ≤ n for each n. It can be expressed as:
The nth coefficient of a univalent function can be no more than n.
Loewner proved that for such functions f, |a3| ≤ 3. We should also note that Loewner’s proof uses the Loewner differential equation which has been studied extensively since he introduced it, and was used by de Branges in his celebrated proof of the

Another important paper written by Loewner during this period is devoted to properties of n-monotonic functions. The notion of an n-monotonic function is a generalisation of the usual idea of monotonicity. A function f : (a,b) → R is said to be n-monotonic if, for all symmetric real positive n × n-matrices X, Y with spectrum in (a,b), then XY (in the sense of quadratic forms) implies f (X) ≤ f (Y).

… both the problem posed and the answer given are totally unexpected. The functions which Loewner called n-monotonic turned out to be of importance for electrical engineering and for quantum physics …Although aware of the increasing danger that he and his family were in, Loewner was still in Prague when the Nazis occupied the city. Loewner was immediately put in jail and he spent a week there trying to leave the country. After paying the ‘emigration tax’ twice over he was allowed to leave the country with his family.

The Loewners arrived in America penniless, but managed to bring their furniture and books.It was at this point that he changed his name to Charles Loewner, a definite signal that he wished his family to make a new start in a new country.

… teaching many hours of elementary courses and having to grade staggering piles of homework. Some students asked him to teach an advanced course, but when he agreed to do so, without additional remuneration, he was told, first, that this would take his mind off his primary duties, and then, that there was no free classroom. Finally Loewner taught his advanced course in a local brewery before the arrival of the morning shift.He worked at Brown University from 1944 on a program related to war work. His contributions here were to work on fluid dynamics where he produced some deep results about critical subsonic flows. Other results arose from his study of how to defend against kamikaze bombers.

In 1946 he went to Syracuse University where he remained for five years before he moved to Stanford [

This was the right place for him and his family. He loved the California weather and the California nature. The house in Los Altos was the first real home the Loewners had since Prague. Among the distinguished mathematicians there were his old friends …

Loewner was a man whom everybody liked, perhaps because he was a man at peace with himself. He conducted a life-long passionate love affair with mathematics, but was neither competitive, nor jealous, nor vain. His kindness and generosity in scientific matters, to students and colleagues alike, were proverbial. He seemed to be incapable of malice. His manners were mild and even diffident, but those hid a will of steel. Without being religious he strongly felt his Jewish identity. Without forgetting his native Czech he spoke pure and precise German … Without having any illusions about Soviet Russia he was a man of the left. He was a good storyteller, with a sense of humour which was at once Jewish and humanistic. But first and foremost he was a mathematician.

Finally we should add a few words about the direction Loewner’s research took. We have already mention his brilliant concept of n-monotonic functions. In this context he studied order preserving mappings and

Guide to the Charles Loewner Papers

Professor Emeritus Charles Loewner was born on May 29, 1893, in the village of Lany, near Prague, which was at the time the capital of Bohemia. Loewner received his Ph.D. in Mathematics at the Prague University. From 1922-1928 he taught at Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. Following a brief lectureship at Cologne, he was appointed to a chair in Mathematics at the German Charles University in Prague. The occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1939 prompted his emigration to the United States. He taught at Louisville, Brown, and Syracuse University prior to his appointment in 1951 as Professor of Mathematics at Stanford University, where he specialized in complex analysis and differential geometry. Loewner remained at Stanford University until his death in 1968.

Associate Professor Karl Löwner, of the German University at Prague, has been promoted to a professorship of mathematics. 


168.) Löwi, Moritz (1933-1944) Connecticut College / Psychology

Genealogy Data Page 65 Index for Pages grouped by descendants “van der HOVE, Moritz Lowi b. 1 NOV 1874 Winschoten … van der HOVE, Lowi Moritz b. 3 APR 1906 Winschoten – d. 3 JAN 1907 Winschoten; van der HOVE, …” RWTH Philosophie – “17. Febr. 2009 … Von Jakob Böhme bis Moritz Löwi. Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen, Bonn 1992, 319 S. B.2, Mitherausgeber (zus. mit Stephan …” ???


169.) Lowinsky, Edward Elias (1940-1944) Black Mountain College (N.C.) / Musicology

Guggenheim ‘fellow’…Edward Elias Lowinsky (19081985) was an American musicologist born in Stuttgart, Germany.

Lowinsky studied piano, composition, and conducting in Stuttgart at the Hochschule für Musik, 1923-28. In 1933, he obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Heidelberg, studying under Heinrich Besseler. His dissertation was on Orlando di Lasso. He lived in Holland from 1933 to 1939, and in 1940 emigrated to the United States. In 1947 he became a United States citizen. He taught at Black Mountain College (1942-47), Queens College, New York (1947-56), and the University of California, Berkeley (1956-61). From 1961 he taught at the University of Chicago. He was the editor of the Monuments of Renaissance Music series from 1964 to 1977, and chaired the 1971 conference on Josquin des Prez.

Lowinsky was one of the most prominent and influential musicologists in post-World War II America. His 1946 work on the “secret chromatic art” of Renaissance motets was hotly debated in its time, spurring considerable research into the issues of musica ficta and performance practice of early music. He did significant work preparing editions of Renaissance composers and was a major figure in redefining standards for critical editions of musical manuscripts. Most of his published articles were collected into the massive two-volume Music in the Culture of the Renaissance (1989), edited by his wife, musicologist Bonnie Blackburn.


170.) Magnus, Erna (1933-1934, 1943-1944) Bryn Mawr / Sociology

Magnus (Erna) Papers 1943, 1974 MS 42

Special Collections * The Milton S. Eisenhower Library * The Johns Hopkins University

Erna Magnus was an author and educator. She wrote The Social, Economic and Legal Conditions of Domestic Servants (1934) and Zur Ausbildung der Deutschen Sozialarbeiter (1953).

Guide to the National Council On Household Employment Records,1927 … “2 pp; correspondence re Dr. Erna Magnus’ research project; 5 p. paper read by Amey Watson, Next Steps in Household Employment, and routine, …”

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY / The National Committee on Employer-Employee Relationships at Home, (called the National Council on Household Employment from 1931 until its disbandment) functioned to coordinate educational and research activities of groups interested in this field.

The Committee was created in October, 1928 by a national conference on the subject of household employment held in Washington, D.C. at the invitation of the Bureau of Home Economics, the Women’s Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor, and the Industrial Department of the National Young Women’s Christian Association (Y.W.C.A.). The consensus at this conference was that the hours, wages, living conditions, and working conditions of paid employees in the home needed clarification and possible adjustment. The Committee was determined to function as a clearinghouse for all groups working in the field, to stimulate relevant studies and experiments, to develop an educational program to benefit both employer and the employed, and to gradually work out standards for household employment. The initial impetus for the Washington conference came from Anetta Dieckman of the Industrial Department of the Y.W.C.A. and from Amey E. Watson, a teacher at Haverford College who was then engaged in a study of household employment. Watson served as director of the Committee until the summer of 1930 and was a member during most of its existence. The organization continued to function until 1942.

Erna Magnus 1947-66, Social Work. 150 “Magnus, Erna 140. Maier, Hans 91. Marx, Karl 58. Meerfeld, Else 65. -Jean 65, 66 , 73. Mennicke, Carl 137. Moses, Julius 137. Nemitz, Anna 137 …” 


171.) Malko, Nicolai (1941-1944) Central YMCA College (Chicago) / Music

Nikolai (Mykola) Malko (uk: Микола Малько) (1883–1961) was a Ukrainian conductor.

Malko was born in Semaky, Ukraine. In his youth Malko published articles on music criticism in the Russian press and performed as a pianist and later a conductor. In 1906 he completed his studies in history and language at the Saint Petersburg University and in 1909 the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. He included Rimsky-Korsakov, Glazunov and Lyadov among his teachers. In 1909 he became a conductor at the Mariinsky Theatre and, six years later, the head conductor here. From 1909 he studied conducting in Munich under Felix Mottl. In 1918 he became the director of the conservatory in Vitebsk and from 1921 taught at the Moscow Conservatory. He became conductor of the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra in 1926 and conducted the première of Dmitri Shostakovich‘s 1st Symphony in the same year and his 2nd Symphony in 1927. Malko also conducted the premiere of Nikolai Myaskovsky‘s 5th Symphony. Myaskovsky’s 9th Symphony was dedicated to Nikolai Malko.

He was succeeded by his pupil Evgeny Mravinsky in 1928, when the tightening of the Soviet screws against the arts caused him to leave the Soviet Union. That year, during a concert tour, he defected to the West. He lived in Vienna, Prague and, from 1930 until 1956, Copenhagen; in the last named city he enjoyed a long-standing relationship with the Royal Danish Orchestra and Danish National Symphony Orchestra.

He settled in the United States in 1940, where he also taught conducting; his thoughts on conducting technique were gathered together and published in The Conductor and his Baton (1950). A handbook on conducting currently available in the USA (Elizabeth A. H. Green: The Modern Conductor, 1996) is explicitly based on the principles of Malko’s volume. He recorded extensively for EMI in Copenhagen and then with the Philharmonia, mainly Russian repertoire. In 1951 he premiered Vagn Holmboe‘s 7th Symphony with the Danish Radio Symphony Orchestra.

In 1956 he moved to Australia, becoming chief conductor of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, and holding this position until his death in Sydney in 1961.


172.) Manes, Alfred (1933-1940, 1942-1945) Indiana U / Insurance and Economics

See full size image Dr. Alfred Manes was known as a teacher “who changed an industry.” He was instrumental in laying the foundation for the systematic study of modern insurance.

In 1902, after studying law and insurance at the Universities of Munich, Heidelberg, Strasbourg, Gottingen and London, he became Secretary of the German Association for Insurance Science, a post he held for many years. He wrote and published forty books on insurance subjects and served in addition as chief editor of the German Insurance Lexicon. He frequently visited other countries to study insurance practice, going to Australia and New Zealand in 1909. He also advised several governments on insurance matters.

He was the German secretary of the Permanent Committee of the International Congresses of Actuaries and was the general secretary of the Fifth International Insurance Congress in Berlin in 1906. He was an instructor in insurance at Handelshochschule and in advanced courses for Prussian officials in Berlin.

Considered an outstanding teacher, his works made possible the foundation of an international insurance system. His Hanbuch uber das Versicherungswesen, first published in 1930, became a standard reference throughout the world.

Beginning in 1937, he taught at Indiana University in the United States and then until he retired, at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois, United States.

“18 Dec 2008 … Since the first Patten Lecture by the German business economist Alfred Manes in 1937, more than 200 world-renowned scholars have lectured at …” * “According to Alfred Manes, the majority of property insurance crimes involve arson. One reason for this is that any evidence that a fire was started by …” * “economics, Alfred Manes, at the London congress in 1927. …. Examples are Alfred Manes, a key figure in the German Association of Actuaries and professor …” * adventurer Alfred Manes probably were influenced by the republican sentiments of the workers they “knocked around” with during their travels here, [australia]…” * 1903: ACTUARIES CATCH UP WITH PROGRAMME; Reduce the Limit of Speeches to … “Dr. Alfred Manes of Berlin spoke of the fact that at the Third International Congress of Medical Officers in Paris in May there present no American doctors. …” “Alfred Manes of Berlin, one of the best known specialists in social insurance, writing during the year when the British insurance law went into effect, …” * economics, Alfred Manes, at the London congress in 1927. …. Examples are Alfred Manes, a key figure in the German Association of Actuaries and professor …” * The rise of the modern insurance business and of social insurance systems since the late 19th century [see lengwiller .pdf] * Alfred Manes, a key figure in the German Association of Actuaries and professor for insurance economy in Berlin,


173.) Manheim, Ernst (1934-1941, 1944) U of Kansas City / Sociology

A Century Mirrored in a Person’s Life * Ernest Manheim: Sociologist and Anthropologist * Biography by Elisabeth Welzig

The life of Ernest Manheim, born in Budapest in 1900, reflects the breaks and continuities typical of a Central European intellectual who has become a citizen of the USA. Since 1938, he has been living in Kansas City,

Intellectually Ernest Manheim was shaped above all by his cousin, Karl Mannheim, who also invited him to London in 1933. Other decisive influences came from three teachers so diverse as George Lukács, the German sociologist Hans Freyer and the Polish-born British anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski. Dr. Manheim studied sociology in Vienna, Kiel and Leipzig, and anthropology in London. His ‘”habilitation” thesis (in Germany, a prerequisite for an academic career) on “The Leaders of Public Opinion”, finished in 1933, was not accepted by the Nazi authorities. It is now considered one of the standard works on communication theory. In London he wrote another thesis on “Risk, Security and Authority”. He was then in close contact with the Frankfurt school, to whose study on authority he contributed.

The following subjects are dealt with in this book: a childhood in a Jewish upper middle class environment of fin-de-siècle Budapest; schooldays and early youth in the declining Austro-Hungarian Empire; the year 1918, the experience of the breakdown of pre-war society and the Communist revolution; the “Sunday Circle” gathering around George Lukács in Budapest and Vienna and its consequences for the young leftist intellectual; the development of his personality within the triangle Hans Freyer – Karl Mannheim – Bronislaw Malinowski; the sociology of knowledge as a spiritual link between the two cousins Karl and Ernest Man(n)heim; the long way of a European intellectual into the American exile; the differences between European and American sociology exemplified in Ernest Manheim, who learned the empirical method at the University of Chicago (1337-38) and applied it in Kansas City.

Elisabeth Welzig is a journalist and a remote relation of Ernest Manheim. After intensive research work and several weeks of interviews she wrote a biography, which has just been brought out by the Viennese publisher, Böhlau Verlag.

Ernest Manheim sociologist, anthropologist, and composer

HUNGARY 1900-1920

Born Ernő Manheim as the elder of two children of the owner of a tailoring József (Joseph) Manheim (1863-1925) and his wife Hermine, née Wengraf (1870-1953; later married Déri), in Budapest on January 27, 1900. Educated bilingual (Hungarian, German) in Budapest, then capital of the Hungarian part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Grammarschool in Budapest IV. 1909-17, matriculation July, 1917. Then educated at the Military Academy of Budapest (“Ludoviceum”); besides student of chemistry at the Technical University of Budapest in 1917 and 1918/19. In-between soldier of the Austro-Hungarian army 1918 at the front in Italy. After the World War I he returned to Budapest to continue his studies. Participated in the Soviet Republic of Hungary (March to July, 1919) as volunteer (lieutenant) in the Red Army, first against Czechoslovakia, then against Romania, where he was imprisoned at Arad. In October, 1919 he could flee to the north-east of Hungary and at the beginning of 1920 to Vienna.

AUSTRIA 1920-1923

In Austria as well as in Germany he used the name Ernst Manheim. Student of chemistry and physics, later of philosophy at the University of Vienna 1920-23. Between November, 1921 and June, 1922 in Schwaz (Tyrol), formally student at the University of Innsbruck.

GERMANY 1923-1933

1923-25 in Kiel. Student of philosophy at the University of Kiel 1923-25. Followed his teacher, the sociologist Hans Freyer (1887-1969), with whom he became acquainted in 1923, to Leipzig in 1925. 1925-33 in Leipzig. Student of philosophy, political economy and sociology at the University of Leipzig 1925-27; Dr. phil. (Ph.D.; philosophy) in 1928 with Theodor Litt (1880-1962) and Hans Freyer; thesis: “Zur Logik des konkreten Begriffs” (A logic of concrete concept). Unpaid assistant with Hans Freyer 1926-33 and lecturer at the University of Leipzig 1929-32. Besides lecturer at the University Extension of Leipzig 1926-33. Married the German Anna Sophie Vitters (later Ann Sophy Manheim; *Osnabrück 1899, †Kansas City, Missouri 1988) in 1928. Anna Sophie Manheim-Vitters was a teacher who studied since 1924 philosophy at the University of Leipzig; Dr. phil. (Ph.D.) in 1929; thesis: “[Lothar] Bucher und [Ferdinand] Lassalle (1848-1864). Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte politischer Ideenbildung im 19. Jahrhundert” (Bucher and Lassalle. A contribution to the formation of political ideas during the 19th century); later certificate in industrial psychology, University of London; social worker. One son: Tibor Franz Dietrich (later Frank Tibor) Manheim (*Leipzig 1930); he studied at the Harvard University (A.B. 1951), the University of Minnesota (M.Sc. 1953), and the University of Stockholm (Dr. phil. 1961); geochemist. 1931-32 one and a half year fellowship of the August-Stern-Stiftung to write his study of habilitation “Die Träger der öffentlichen Meinung” (The organs of public opinion). The procedure of habilitation with Hans Freyer, which started in June, 1932, was broken off “freely” on March 28, 1933 because Ernest Manheim didn’t have any chance as foreigner and Jew. He returned with his family to Budapest where he spent the time until winter.


In Great Britain as well as in the United States of America he used the name Ernest Manheim. In December, 1933 he came to London. Student of sociology and anthropology at the University of London and London School of Economics 1934-37; Ph.D. (anthropology) 1937 with Morris Ginsberg (1889-1970), Bronislaw Malinowski (i.e. Bronisław Kaspar Malinowski; 1884-1942), and his cousin Karl Mannheim (i.e. Károly Mannheim; 1893-1947); thesis: “Security, authority, and society: an ethnological introduction into sociology”. Besides assistant with Karl Mannheim at the London School of Economics and Political Science and at the Institute of Sociology of the University of London 1934-37. Fellowship of the Jewish Professional Committee 1935-36 (study about the “Authoritarian element in the family”). In Spring 1937 short stay in New York and Budapest.


Arrived definitely in the United States in July, 1937; naturalized in 1943 as Ernest Manheim. 1937-38 in Chicago, Illinois. Assistant professor of sociology at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Ill. 1937-38. Since August, 1938 in Kansas City, Missouri, where he is still living. Since 1938 member of the University of Kansas City (since 1968: University of Missouri) at Kansas City, Mo.: 1938-40 fellow of the Rockefeller Foundation, 1940-45 associate professor of sociology, 1948-70 professor of sociology and chairman of the Department of Sociology, which was constructed by him; since 1958 Henry Haskell professor of sociology, since 1991 professor emeritus. Fulbright professor at the University of Graz and the University of Vienna 1955-56. Fulbright professor at the University of Teheran 1960-61. Married the Canadian psychologist Sheelagh Bull, née Hope (*Oliver, British Columbia 1943), in 1991. 1997 Ehrenkreuz für Wissenschaft und Kunst (order of honor for science and art) of the Republic of Austria. Besides his activities in science Ernest Manheim is a skilled artisan and a composer. Many of his compositions had their first performances at Kansas City as e.g. his “Symphony in B Minor” in 1950. / Christian Reiser is currently finishing a portrait of Ernest Manheim on video. A www-clip from this video is available for download.


174.) Mann, Fritz Karl (1935-1944) War Dept. (DC) / Economics

FiFo Institute for Public Economics, University of Cologne “The Institute was founded by Fritz Karl Mann and … Fritz Karl Mann was forced to flee the anti-Semitic persecution of the Nazi government …” Institute for Public Economics, University of Cologne / The Institute was founded by Fritz Karl Mann and originally known as the ‘Institut für internationale Finanzwirtschaft’. Starting work in May 1927, research initially focused on the reparations owed by the German Reich after World War I. However, after quickly branching out into general questions of taxation and public expenditure, the Institute was renamed the ‘Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut’. A number of generous endowments enabled research operations to quickly expand. / The year 1936 ushered in a period of sharp decline. Fritz Karl Mann was forced to flee the anti-Semitic persecution of the Nazi government and went into American exile, while the Chair of Public Sector Economics at the University ‘lapsed’. Although the Institute itself was not formally closed down, its activities rapidly dwindled before being brought to a complete halt by World War II. Moreover, the foundation’s assets were swallowed up by the rampant inflation during and after the war.

Fritz Karl Mann’s (1883–1979) work is rarely discussed in English,4 although he author in Washington, DC, as an exile. Here, Helge Peukert fills a void. …” * “Fritz Karl Mann, Economics (Emeritus), University of Cologne and American University, Washington. * “the Socialization of Risks, by Fritz Karl Mann in the Review of Politics, 1945. DANGEROUS COMMERCE: INSURANCE AND THE MANAGEMENT OF …” * “In 1937 Fritz Karl Mann published his basic book on ‘ideals of tax policy”. Ž . Steuerpolitische Ideale. . . , a long-term comparative study on the …” * “Fritz Karl Mann, was asked to write a report on the city’s finances, he declined to do soafter hav- ing briefly looked into the figures. He later told …” BALKANIZATION OF AMERICA: LESSONS FROM THE INTERSTATE TRADE … “Mann, Fritz Karl (1940), “Is American Balkanization Inevitable? Some Critical Remarks,” American. Scholar 9:7 (January), pp. 52-62. …” STOR “Fritz Karl Mann. STOR. ®. Public Administration Review, Vol. 3, No. 3. (Summer, 1943), pp. 194-204. …… since the outbreak of the war, such as the ac- …” * “Citizenship and Political Tests in Latin American Republics in World War II .” Research in Political Science “The remarkable initiative developed by the War Department during the war has …… worthy similar study by Fritz Karl Mann in which the fiscal systems …” Alabama “Ludwig Homberger, Fritz Karl Mann, and Ernst Posner. Archival hold- …… retary of State, the War Department, relatives, friends and business associates. …” * American University Archives holds a small amount of material relating to faculty members who were Jewish refugees from Germany including Ludwig Homberger, Fritz Karl Mann, and Ernst Posner. Archival holdings include faculty personnel files and student and university publications documenting their work at American University. Homberger, Ludwig (1939–1954) * • Mann, Fritz Karl (1937–1956) * • Posner, Ernst (1939–1961)


175.) Mann, Thomas (1933-1934, 1938-1945) 1530 San Remo Dr., Pacific Palisades, Ca. / Letters

Thomas Mann is considered the greatest German writer of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929. Opposed to the politics of the National Socialists, Mann emigrated to Switzerland in 1933 and lived there until 1938. He then came to the United States as a visiting professor to Princeton. In July 1940, the Manns took the train to Southern California, living at 441 North Rockingham in Brentwood until October. Thomas and Katia Mann returned to Princeton for the fall of 1940 before finally returning to California in April 1941. They lived next at 740 Amalfi Drive in Pacific Palisades until they built their own home in Pacific Palisades at 1550 San Remo Drive.

In 1944 Thomas Mann became a U.S. citizen. Although Mann visited both East and West Germany several times after the end of the war, he refused to live there and completed his years living in Switzerland near Zürich. While in Los Angeles, Mann wrote Joseph der Ernährer (1942), Doktor Faustus (1947), its appendix Die Entstehung des Doktor Faustus (1949), Der Erwählte(1951).


176.) Marck, Siegfried (1933-1944) Central YMCA College / Philosophy

Finding Aid for the SIEGFRIED MARCK PAPERS, 1939-1957 (GER-064)

Biographical Sketch

March 9, 1889 – born in Breslau, son of Alfons and Rosa Heimann Marck

December 9, 1920 – married Klara Rosenstock in Breslau

April 23, 1930 – appointed Professor in Ordinary of the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Breslau

October 1938 to September 30, 1939 – Master of Research, Faculty of Letters, at the University of Dijon

March 4, 1946 – divorce from Claire Marck, Chicago, Illinois

April 3, 1946 – married Ilse Apt

January 11, 1949 Certificate of Naturalization

February 16, 1957 Coroner’s Certificate of Death, Chicago, Illinois

Biographical materials, 1939–57; correspondence, in part pertaining to Thomas Mann, 1950–57; and printed materials. A native of Breslau, Marck taught at Roosevelt University from 1945.

“Siegfried Marck (1956). Thomas Mann as a Thinker. Ethics 67 (1):53-57. * “Among them was the Jewish neo-Kantian Siegfried Marck, who had taught philosophy at Breslau University and had also been one of the leaders for change in …” * “2, The legal theorist Siegfried Marck, thanking Horkheimer for his copy, confessed that he found it difficult to enter into a “world of thought” that moved …” * Weimar – The left wing intellectuals “Neo-Kantians, like Leonard Nelson and Siegfried Marck, tried to provide a new theoretical basis for the socialist movement; Arthur Rosenberg, …”

Siegfried Marck (* 9. März 1889 in Breslau, Schlesien; † 16. Februar 1957 in Chicago, Illinois/USA) war ein deutsch-jüdischer Philosoph und Vertreter einer liberalen Sozialdemokratie.

Marck wuchs im Breslau um 1900 in einer großbürgerlichen jüdischen Familie auf. Die Familie zählte zum humanistisch geprägten Bildungsbürgertum, das sie mit einer patriotisch-nationalliberalen Haltung verband. Der Urgroßvater hatte zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts – als den Juden nach Jahrhunderten endlich Freiheits- und Bürgerrechte verliehen wurden – ein Bankhaus gegründet, welches den Grundstein der privilegierten Existenz der Familie bildete. Marcks Großvater und Vater studierten die Rechte und leiteten eine Kanzlei – in den Staatsdienst und damit ins Richteramt wären sie nur über eine Taufe, ein Bekenntnis zum christlichen Glauben gelangt, was beide jedoch ablehnten. Neben der anwaltlichen Tätigkeit saßen beide als Stadträte im Magistrat der Stadt Breslau, führten Wohlfahrtsorganisationen und engagierten sich in führenden Positionen (wie die Mutter Siegfried Marcks) der jüdischen Synagogengemeinde.

Siegfried Marck legte das Abitur am Johannes-Gymnasium ab und nahm 1907 – wie Großvater und Vater – das Studium der Rechtswissenschaften an der Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität Breslau auf. Nach nur einem Semester ging er nach Genf, um dort weiterzustudieren. Von dort kehrte er schnell zurück und verwarf das ungeliebte Jurastudium vollends. Er gab nun seiner eigentlichen intellektuellen Neigung nach und begann das Studium der Philosophie in Breslau, welches er später in Berlin und Freiburg fortsetzte.

1911 wurde Marck promoviert mit einer Arbeit über das Thema „Erkenntniskritik, Psychologie und Metaphysik nach ihrem inneren Verhältnis in der Ausbildung der platonischen Ideenlehre”. Er heiratete die Dichterin und Frauenrechtlerin Lola Landau. 1917 habilitierte er sich (im Alter von gerade einmal 28 Jahren) mit einer Arbeit über die philosophischen Grundbegriffe bei Immanuel Kant und Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

Im selben Jahr – ein Jahr vor Kriegsende – wurde er an die Westfront abkommandiert und erlebte die Schrecken des Ersten Weltkriegs. Die Erlebnisse an der Front machten ihn zum überzeugten Pazifisten und führten zum Eintritt in die SPD.

1922 erhielt er einen Lehrauftrag an der Breslauer Universität für Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie; 1924 folgte die Ernennung zum außerordentlichen Professor für Soziologie und Philosophie. Es war der preußische Kultusminister Adolf Grimme, der ihn 1930 zum Ordinarius und Lehrstuhlnachfolger Richard Hönigswalds machte.

Nach der Machtübernahme der NSDAP unter Führung Adolf Hitlers und der damit verbundenen staatlichen Legitimation der Verfolgung von „Gesinnungsfeinden” wie Juden und Sozialisten (Marck war beides) – in Schlesien vor allem initiiert durch den brutalen Schlächter der SA, Edmund Heines – flüchtete Siegfried Marck ins scheinbar idyllisch-ruhige Freiburg, musste aber rasch das Heil in der Emigration suchen, nachdem man ihn aus dem Amt geworfen hatte. Bis kurz vor dem deutschen Einfall und dem Beginn der Okkupation war er Exilant in Frankreich. Er konnte noch rechtzeitig in die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika fliehen.

Bis zu seiner Emeritierung lehrte Marck am YMCA College in Chicago als Professor für Philosophie. Am 16. Februar 1957 starb er dort.


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